World War

Topics: World War II, Nazi Germany, World War I Pages: 11 (2882 words) Published: March 7, 2013

* Started by Germany
* Triple Alliance/Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy / Turkey & Bulgaria * Triple Entente (treaty of friendship, not yet an alliance): Britain, France and Russia * Allies: Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Serbia, USA

* Attitude of powerful class of military leaders on their countries’ policies * Glorification of war and urged the build up of weapons and armies * New high tech weapons later increased greater causalities * This caused problems in the use of diplomacy: temptation to start war C. SARAJEVO INCIDENT

* Serbians is Serbia wanted to create a Greater Serbia by attacking Austria-Hungary * Archduke Francis Ferdinand’s assassination by Serbian Gavrilo Princip triggers the war * Serbians hoped to increased tensions within the Hapsburg and cause a revolution * Austria saw it as an excuse to attack Serbia: issued an ultimatum (demands that Serbia has to answer or Austria will declare war) * Answered all but one: only Austrians officials are allowed to investigate on the Sarajevo Inc D. CHAIN REACTION

* Conflict between two nations was likely to expand and involve those countries’ allies * Austria called on Germany and said yes: believed that they would be superpowers once Russia and France are defeated * To attack France, Germans must go though Belgium –> involvement of Britain E. TRENCH WARFARE/ WESTERN AND EASTERN FRONTS

a. Western Front: Germany vs. France in Verdun
* No man’s land: wasteland
* Stalemate: no one was winning/advancing
* Hoped to capture France but troops in Russia were advancing sooner than expected -> French counterattack b. Eastern Front: Germany vs. Russia
* Victory of Germany because of
* Russia’s lack of morale, poorly equipped weapons, bad leaders, German blocked ship supplies, heavy causalities and discontent with czar’s rule: Russian Revolution * Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: Russia had to give up large amount of valuable resources F. FACTORS THAT BROUGHT THE US INTO THE WAR

* President Wilson: initially neutral but supported the Allies because of pro democracy * Propaganda to win support for Allies: German resentment * Loaned billions of dollars to the Allies’ cause

* Zimmerman telegram triggers America to join the war in France; * Arthur Zimmerman tried to make an alliance with Mexico: we’ll return Texas and parts of Southwestern America if you become our ally G. GERMANY ASKS FOR AN ARMISTICE

* Faced shortages of food, supplied and medicine -> didn’t survive the counterattacks * Austria and Turkey surrendered and Kaiser in Germany was forced to give up his throne H. MAJOR GOALS ESTABLISHED BY WILSON’S FOURTEEN POINTS * President Wilson offers plan for Peace: Fourteen Points speech a. Self determination: national groups could determine their own political status b. Peace without victory: settlement to avoid seeking revenge c. Disarmament: disarm of weapons to avoid fear of attack d. Fair treatment of colonial peoples: consider interests of the people/self determination e. League of Nations: international organization to help settle disputes between Nations I. REQUIREMENTS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES (Settlement with Germany) * Peace treaties were signed: Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey a. Reduced German land and power: returned lands and coal mines to France, Poland, and several overseas territories in Asia, Africa and Pacific Ocean; New Austria was forbidden to unite with Germany b. Demilitarized: reduction of army men and artillery

c. Requirement to pay reparations to other nations for damages caused J. LONG REANGE CONSEQUENCES OF WWI
* Collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire & created their own states: Czechs and Slovacks:...
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