WORLD WAR 1
MAJOR ALLIANCES FORMED DURING WW1
Started by Germany
Triple Alliance/Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy / Turkey & Bulgaria *
Triple Entente (treaty of friendship, not yet an alliance): Britain, France and Russia *
Allies: Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Serbia, USA
Attitude of powerful class of military leaders on their countries’ policies *
Glorification of war and urged the build up of weapons and armies *
New high tech weapons later increased greater causalities *
This caused problems in the use of diplomacy: temptation to start war C.
Serbians is Serbia wanted to create a Greater Serbia by attacking Austria-Hungary *
Archduke Francis Ferdinand’s assassination by Serbian Gavrilo Princip triggers the war *
Serbians hoped to increased tensions within the Hapsburg and cause a revolution *
Austria saw it as an excuse to attack Serbia: issued an ultimatum (demands that Serbia has to answer or Austria will declare war) *
Answered all but one: only Austrians officials are allowed to investigate on the Sarajevo Inc D.
Conflict between two nations was likely to expand and involve those countries’ allies *
Austria called on Germany and said yes: believed that they would be superpowers once Russia and France are defeated *
To attack France, Germans must go though Belgium –> involvement of Britain E.
TRENCH WARFARE/ WESTERN AND EASTERN FRONTS
Western Front: Germany vs. France in Verdun
No man’s land: wasteland
Stalemate: no one was winning/advancing
Hoped to capture France but troops in Russia were advancing sooner than expected -> French counterattack b.
Eastern Front: Germany vs. Russia
Victory of Germany because of
Russia’s lack of morale, poorly equipped weapons, bad leaders, German blocked ship supplies, heavy causalities and discontent with czar’s rule: Russian Revolution *
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: Russia had to give up large amount of valuable resources F.
FACTORS THAT BROUGHT THE US INTO THE WAR
President Wilson: initially neutral but supported the Allies because of pro democracy *
Propaganda to win support for Allies: German resentment *
Loaned billions of dollars to the Allies’ cause
Zimmerman telegram triggers America to join the war in France; *
Arthur Zimmerman tried to make an alliance with Mexico: we’ll return Texas and parts of Southwestern America if you become our ally G.
GERMANY ASKS FOR AN ARMISTICE
Faced shortages of food, supplied and medicine -> didn’t survive the counterattacks *
Austria and Turkey surrendered and Kaiser in Germany was forced to give up his throne H.
MAJOR GOALS ESTABLISHED BY WILSON’S FOURTEEN POINTS *
President Wilson offers plan for Peace: Fourteen Points speech a.
Self determination: national groups could determine their own political status b.
Peace without victory: settlement to avoid seeking revenge c.
Disarmament: disarm of weapons to avoid fear of attack d.
Fair treatment of colonial peoples: consider interests of the people/self determination e.
League of Nations: international organization to help settle disputes between Nations I.
REQUIREMENTS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES (Settlement with Germany) *
Peace treaties were signed: Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey a.
Reduced German land and power: returned lands and coal mines to France, Poland, and several overseas territories in Asia, Africa and Pacific Ocean; New Austria was forbidden to unite with Germany b.
Demilitarized: reduction of army men and artillery
Requirement to pay reparations to other nations for damages caused J.
LONG REANGE CONSEQUENCES OF WWI
Collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire & created their own states: Czechs and Slovacks:...
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