Leptospirosis: It’s Causes, Symptoms, Complications,
Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment.
Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection affecting both humans and animals. It is acquired through direct contact with the urine of infected animals or by contact with a urine-contaminated environment such as floodwater, soil, and plants. The bacteria enter the body through broken skins, eyes, nose or mouth. As of October 26, the Department of Health (DOH) has recorded a total of 2,158 cases including 167 deaths. Leptospirosis cases in Metro Manila have increased by as much as 174 percent since last year. Leptospirosis cases reached its peak from October 14 to 19, with hospitals reporting up to 350 cases a day. This term paper entitled: “Leptospirosis: It’s Causes, Symptoms, Complications, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment” also aims to achieve the following objectives: •
To identify and recognize what Leptospirosis is, and;
To know the causes, symptoms, complications, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of Leptospirosis.
Leptospirosis is a major public health problem worldwide, particularly in the tropics.The clinical presentation of leptospirosis in humans is variable, and can range from a mild flu-like illness to a severe disease with pulmonary hemorrhage, renal failure, and occasionally death. Consequently, leptospirosis is easily mistaken for other febrile illnesses including influenza, dengue fever, meningitis, or hepatitis. Therefore, rapid and appropriate laboratory diagnostic tests are needed to aid clinical case identification and to facilitate the implementation of rapid outbreak investigations for optimal treatment and patient management. Leptospirosis (also known as Weil's disease, Weil's syndrome, canicola fever, canefield fever, nanukayami fever, 7-day fever, Rat Catcher's Yellows, Fort Bragg fever, andPretibial fever) is a bacterial zoonotic disease caused by spirochaetes of the genusLeptospira that affects humans and a wide range of animals, including mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles. The disease was first described by Adolf Weil in 1886 when he reported an "acute infectious disease with enlargement of spleen, jaundice and nephritis". Leptospira was first observed in 1907 from a post mortem renal tissue slice. In 1908, Inada and Ito first identified it as the causative organism  and in 1916 noted its presence in rats. Though recognized among the world's most common zoonoses, leptospirosis is a relatively rare bacterial infection in humans. The infection is commonly transmitted to humans by allowing water that has been contaminated by animal urine to come in contact with unhealed breaks in the skin, the eyes, or with the mucous membranes. Outside of tropical areas, leptospirosis cases have a relatively distinct seasonality with most of them occurring August–September/February–March.
Leptospirosis was postulated as the cause of an epidemic among native Americans along the coast of present-day Massachusetts that occurred immediately before the arrival of the Pilgrims in 1620 and wiped out most of the native population. Earlier proposals included plague, yellow fever, smallpox, influenza, chickenpox, typhus, typhoid fever, trichinellosis, meningitis, and syndemic infection of hepatitis B virus with the delta agent. None are as consistent with all the evidence as leptospirosis. While the disease may have been brought to the New World by Europeans, its spread was also influenced by the high-risk quotidian activities of the Native Americans. The leptospirosis hypothesis is supported by the occurrence of modern outbreaks identified as severe leptospirosis, some accompanied by high mortality rates (the Andaman Islands in the late 1980s, the Philippines in 2009, Ireland in 2010). The cause of this epidemic has been a mystery, while other outbreaks in the same time frame are fairly well established. The epidemic is considered a pivotal event in American history...
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