World History Unit One

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Unit One Exam Make-up

We spend our daily lives living in a civilization, an advanced state of society with a high level of culture, science, industry and government. Living in today's society has set our way of life apart from the way of life from the early and advancing civilizations. Today it's effortless to get wrapped up in our society and take for granted who and what got us to this point in time. The Early civilizations and the advancements they made built a foundation to start living within larger and more complex communities. We have adapted and evolved many present day cultures, systems, and structures from the rise of civilizations. Mesopotamia, the Indus River Valley, the Assyrian people, rulers such as Hammurabi, civilizations such as Greece and Rome are utmost essential to our timeline because they are the cultural basis of where many civilizations, including ours have emerged from.

The hunter-gather life style was left behind and replaced with a need to settle and begin farming. Major early civilizations developed in the flood plains of rivers in Africa and Asia. Mesopotamia was located in the "Fertile Crescent" along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, in present day Iraq. Mesopotamia was an agricultural based society with a polytheistic religion that focused on nature. Their government was made up of regional urban kingdoms with individual city states. The Fertile Crescent consisted of the Sumarian, Babylonian, Assyrian, and Chaldean people, who all helped refine Mesopotamia. The Sumerian people contributed the creation cuneiform writing and introduced irrigation. Babylon was home of the ruler Hammurabi, who was infamous for "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" punishment for law breakers. The Assyrians established Nineveh as the capital city and when Babylon was defeated the Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt Babylon. Mesopotamia was an urban based, literate community with a focus in agriculture and trade. It was these multifarious aspects that made them successful, ultimately they set the standards of what a civilization should consist of.

Ancient Egypt is a civilization of wealth and structure that flourished along the Nile River in northeastern Africa. In over 3,000 years, one of the most sophisticated and creative societies advanced where no other civilization did. Egypt's female pharaoh Hatshepsut carried out extensive building projects of elaborate funeral temples and tombs built into the hills called the Valley of the Kings. Hatshepsut revolutionized the idea of building extravagant and complex structures. Building and art were flourishing in this time period. Between their hieroglyphics and utilizing the vase, art began to mature and take on distinct characteristics. Simple dynamic lines with unusual and modern lines enhanced modern and retro art. Egypt's fixation with ornate art and intricate building inspired Greek and Roman civilizations and even our own.

The third of the river valley civilizations, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were established along the Indus River. The Harappans had an inventive culture. They prospered from producing clay pots, metallic vessels, jewelry, and cotton cloth. The Indus people started trading with Mesopotamia but the Indus civilization came to an abrupt end in 1500BCE possibly because of floods or climate change or because of the Aryan Invaders. Centuries after the civilizations blended, forming the Indian civilizations Hinduism and Buddhism were popping up in religious culture. Ancient China located along the Yellow River was also a part of the Early Asian civilizations. In the Shang dynasty they believed in the philosophies of Daoism and Confucianism. Confucianism corrected their political disorder and Daoism took care of their social disorder.

Hinduism is an Indian religion believing in one God that takes forms of many gods or goddesses and follows many principles on moral thought and non violence. Buddhism is a simplified version of...
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