1. American revolution caused by refusal to pay taxes impose by British. French revolution caused by food shortage and high taxation on the 3rd estate. Both revolutions, the revolutionaries wanted protection of private property and no taxes 2. New liberal movements emerged and nationalism was introduced during radical phase of french revolution. 3. Need for raw materials. Population explosion. Introduction of new technologies. 4. Caused peasant uprisings to decline. Women gained small rights. Middle classes started to develop. Leisure activities became available. 5. All Western governments introduced civil service exams. Schooling expanded. Wider welfare measures emerged. 6. Before, indigenous peoples were low on social ladder and taxed highly. After, the people's began to revolt for independence and rights 7. Need for raw materials. To dominate other core nations. To demonstrate white racial supremacy. 8. Corrupt governments/monarchies. Desire for independence and rights. 9. Some reforms produced a middle class, gained women's suffrage, and abolished slavery. 10. The tanzimat reforms established a western education, a postal service, and railways. 11. Series of weak rulers. Janissaries controlled the military. 12. British manipulated khedives of Egypt. Secured suez canal 13. Taiping and boxer rebellions. Opium war with british. Corrupt bureaucracy. 14. Used chinese ports to trade guns and opium.
15. Internal corruption. Both rebellions. Loss of opium war and treaty of Nanking. 16. Trans Siberian railroad an emancipation of serfs.
17. The Intelligentsia, the Bolsheviks, and anarchists.
18. Japanese reformed without major revolution. Meiji state introduces many social reforms such as replacing feudalism with the Diet.