World History Reviewer

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WORLD HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY Early Humans Australopithecines1st to grow the opposable thumb Homo Habilis“Man of Skill”, Traits, 2.5-1.5 million BC, Brain size = 700 cubic cm Achievements Made tools from lava rock,Use tools to cut meat and crack bones, Homo Erectus, “Upright Man” Traits,1.6 - 30,000 million BC, More intelligent and adaptable, Brain size 1,000 Cubic cm Achievements Used intelligence to develop technology Neanderthal Traits, 200,000 – 30,000 BC, Brain size 1,450 cubic cm Powerfully built, Heavy slanted eyebrow, First to have ritual burials, Tried to control and explain the world CroMagnons Traits, Identical skeleton to modern humans Studied animals’ habits, Planned their hunts, Advanced skill in spoken language, Created art HomoSapiens (modern humans) appeared in Africa 100,000 to 400,000 years ago. Then migrated to ,Europe,Asia, Australia, The Americas Early human societies met their needs by hunting animals and gathering other foods like edible plants. These hunters and gatherers were also known as nomads Nomads: People who depend on wild plants and animals to survive. They followed where the food supply went and gathered seeds and nuts.

ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- “THE LAND BETWEEN TWO RIVERS” ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- DEFINITIONS CITY STATES- self-governing unit made up of a city and its surrounding villages and farmland. LOCATED BETWEEN THE TIGRIS-EUPHRATES RIVERS, BOTH RIVERS FLOW INTO THE PERSIAN GULF LOCATED IN PRESENT DAY IRAQ Fertile Crescent ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- GEOGRAPHY POSITIVE abundant amount of clay, easy till-able soil, water supply from Tigris-Euphrates Rivers NEGATIVE few natural resources, minimal protection from deserts and mountains City-States SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION, BELIEVED TO BE SETTLED . 3000 B.C. DIVIDED INTO CITY-STATES HELPED TO DEVELOP THE FIRST FORM OF ORGANIZED RELIGION CREATED ONE OF THE EARLIEST FORM OF WRITING ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN CITY-STATES ALWAYS IN CONSTANT CONFLICT OVER WATER RIGHTS AND LAND CREATED WALLS FOR PROTECTION, WITH MOATS ALONG THE OUTSIDE FARMS WERE LOCATED ALONG THE OUTSIDE OF THE CITY Sumerians invented: Wheel, Time – 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a minute, 12 month lunar calendar, arch ramp Religion, Ziggurats: pyramid site of the temple of the main gods. Each city-state had their own gods and goddesses

Sun god – most important.,Life after death was an extension of life. Ziggurat – Holy Mountain Ziggurat, Large pyramid shaped structures connected to heaven and earth Ziggurat: “center for learning and religion” Sumerian Religion Monotheism: worshiping one god. “Mono” – means one Polytheism: worshiping many gods. “Poly” – means many Writing:, Cuneiform (LATIN FOR WEDGE) WRITTEN ON CLAY TABLETS NEEDED FOR RELIGION, GOVERNMENT, AND TRADE LEARNED IN SCHOOL, BY MALES THAT LASTED FROM SUNRISE TO SUNSET ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN ECONOMY Make, sell or barter goods.,Trade helped expansion. Development of money,Will evolve over time. ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN ECONOMY RICH government officials, religious leaders, traders POOR Farmers, craftsman ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN PASTIMES Entertainment, No longer had to hunt and gather. More time for fun times. Rich had more time than poor

BOARD GAMES, INSTRUMENTS, BARE FISTED BOXING Activities geared toward young and used for socializing. The invention of Agriculture changed the way people lived. Agriculture (Farming) Growth of Cities, Division of Labor (Specialization), Trade, Writing and Mathematics

Kingdoms Hittites Assyrians- Semitic people; Nineveh is the capital Assyrians, Chief god Assur, Chariots used, First Cavalry Akkadians-Spoke a Semitic Language related to modern Hebrew and Arabic; Babylonians-Chief god: Marduk, Prayed for good harvest and success in business. King Hammurabi- Hammurabi’s Code, Earliest code of law, Based on equal retaliation. 282 laws.,Harsh punishment for crimes., Based on equal retaliation. “ If a man bring an accusation against a man and charge him with a capital...
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