ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- “THE LAND BETWEEN TWO RIVERS” ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- DEFINITIONS CITY STATES- self-governing unit made up of a city and its surrounding villages and farmland. LOCATED BETWEEN THE TIGRIS-EUPHRATES RIVERS, BOTH RIVERS FLOW INTO THE PERSIAN GULF LOCATED IN PRESENT DAY IRAQ Fertile Crescent ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- GEOGRAPHY POSITIVE abundant amount of clay, easy till-able soil, water supply from Tigris-Euphrates Rivers NEGATIVE few natural resources, minimal protection from deserts and mountains City-States SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION, BELIEVED TO BE SETTLED . 3000 B.C. DIVIDED INTO CITY-STATES HELPED TO DEVELOP THE FIRST FORM OF ORGANIZED RELIGION CREATED ONE OF THE EARLIEST FORM OF WRITING ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN CITY-STATES ALWAYS IN CONSTANT CONFLICT OVER WATER RIGHTS AND LAND CREATED WALLS FOR PROTECTION, WITH MOATS ALONG THE OUTSIDE FARMS WERE LOCATED ALONG THE OUTSIDE OF THE CITY Sumerians invented: Wheel, Time – 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a minute, 12 month lunar calendar, arch ramp Religion, Ziggurats: pyramid site of the temple of the main gods. Each city-state had their own gods and goddesses
Sun god – most important.,Life after death was an extension of life. Ziggurat – Holy Mountain Ziggurat, Large pyramid shaped structures connected to heaven and earth Ziggurat: “center for learning and religion” Sumerian Religion Monotheism: worshiping one god. “Mono” – means one Polytheism: worshiping many gods. “Poly” – means many Writing:, Cuneiform (LATIN FOR WEDGE) WRITTEN ON CLAY TABLETS NEEDED FOR RELIGION, GOVERNMENT, AND TRADE LEARNED IN SCHOOL, BY MALES THAT LASTED FROM SUNRISE TO SUNSET ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN ECONOMY Make, sell or barter goods.,Trade helped expansion. Development of money,Will evolve over time. ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN ECONOMY RICH government officials, religious leaders, traders POOR Farmers, craftsman ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN PASTIMES Entertainment, No longer had to hunt and gather. More time for fun times. Rich had more time than poor
BOARD GAMES, INSTRUMENTS, BARE FISTED BOXING Activities geared toward young and used for socializing. The invention of Agriculture changed the way people lived. Agriculture (Farming) Growth of Cities, Division of Labor (Specialization), Trade, Writing and Mathematics
Kingdoms Hittites Assyrians- Semitic people; Nineveh is the capital Assyrians, Chief god Assur, Chariots used, First Cavalry Akkadians-Spoke a Semitic Language related to modern Hebrew and Arabic; Babylonians-Chief god: Marduk, Prayed for good harvest and success in business. King Hammurabi- Hammurabi’s Code, Earliest code of law, Based on equal retaliation. 282 laws.,Harsh punishment for crimes., Based on equal retaliation. “ If a man bring an accusation against a man and charge him with a capital...