World History Notes: Chapter One
In 1849, William Loftus founded the ruins of the city of Uruk, one of the first cities in the world. Loftus found this ancient city in a part of Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia was one of the first places where civilization began. The First Humans
The first civilizations began in Western Asia and Egypt. The way we determine how civilization came about is through science. Archaeologists find many signs of civilization in ancient ruins. No records were contained but scientists were able to find out what happened many years ago. The first humanlike creatures were hominids or Australopithecines. Hominids had the ability to walk upright and were the first to create stone tools. A new form of hominid was discovered by Louis and Mary Leakey in 1959. These hominids were called Homo Habilis. These hominids had a much larger brain and could also walk upright and were also more sophisticated. The next set of hominids was the Homo erectus. These hominids had more advanced tools and were the first to explore to different places like Europe and Asia. The big change in hominids occurred when the Homo sapiens came about. There are two types of Homo sapiens, the Neanderthals and the Homo sapiens sapiens. Neanderthals were found near Neander valley in Germany. Neanderthals were the first to bury their dead and they killed animals for food and also clothing. Homo sapiens sapiens were found in Africa and they replaced Neanderthals/ Homo sapiens sapiens were the human species that stayed alive for the longest and ventured out to all over the world. The Paleolithic Age
The Age of stone tools was called the Paleolithic Age. The Paleolithic people were good hunters and had a clear understanding of a variety of animals. They hunted a variety of animals including buffalo, horses, bison, wild goats, reindeer, and fish. They also gathered different fruits like wild nuts, berried, fruits, and a variety of wild grains and green plants. Paleotlithic people liked to live in groups of twenty to thirty people. They were also Nomadic meaning that they had to move from place to place because of the animals. Hunting became easier as tools were enhanced and soon long ranged weapons were made for easier hunting. The women were the gatherers who stayed near the village and took care of the children while the men were the hunters. Paleolithic people also lived in caves and soon found other means of shelter. The use of fire also provided light in dark places and a way of cooking mean to make it more enjoyable. Paleolithic peoples passed down their tool- making skills and fire-making skills to their children and they passed it down from generation to generation. Paintings were also made in caves that fascinated explorers. These were paintings of lions, oxen, owls, panthers, and other animals. The Neolithic Revolution
This age had a great importance on agriculture. Grains and plants were planted making a consistent source of food. Animals were tamed and also provided a good source of food. People left their nomadic lifestyle and started living in a single area. Systematic agriculture was slowly spreading around the world. The cultivation of Wheat and Barley was also spreading around the world. Cultivation made people start to live in one area for a very long time. These areas were called Neolithic farming villages. Neolithic villages had a surrounding wall that contained mud-brick houses. One of the large communities was Catal Huyuk. Catal Huyuk was located in Turkey and also contained mud-brick houses. The people of Catal Huyuk hunted and had a steady source of food. Because of this steady source of food, some of these people became traders and connected Catal Huyuk to other parts of the world. Shrines and statuettes were also found indicating religion and culture. People had many different jobs all connected to trade. Many means of storage were made to hold food and goods. A problem with the Neolithic age was that men...
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