-Sumerians are the first known civilization in the Middle East.
-Sumerians settled in Mesopotamia, which is present-day Iraq
-Mesopotamia means "lands between two rivers" (Tigris & Euphrates)
-Mesopotamia lies in the East End of "Fertile Crescent"(rich fertile land extending from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea.
-It was a hot and dry climate between the rivers, but it had fertile land.
- The lands of the middle east were more easily conquered than Egypt; Egypt had natural barriers (deserts), unlike the middle east, which did not.
-Egypt wasn't under constant attack, so it left plenty of time for advancements in technology.
-Mesopotamia was split into 12 city-states
-Each city-state had their own government and supervised their own canals and dikes.
-City-states constructed city walls, and storage areas for food in case of attack.
-As city-states grew, they began to fight and have wars with each other.
-War became more important and war-time leaders began to control and people began to care less about the priests.
-Rich soil was abundant; stone and timber were not abundant
-All City-states had a ziggurat: Large, brick temple; home for Gods; largest building in town; center of all social life.
*Transportation & Trade
-Sometime between 3200 b.c. & 1600 b.c, the sail and wheel were revolutionized.
-Sumerians were the first known to use the wheel (invented or borrowed?)
-Sumerians used bronze(silver and copper alloy) tools and weapons
-Period in Sumer around 2800 b.c. was the Bronze Age.
-Any time earlier than the Bronze Age was the Stone Age.
-Sumerians learned to have written record using tools to carve on wet clay (Cuneiform)
-Cuneiform(wedge-shaped writing) started as picto-graphs
-Later, cuneiform was simplified into using symbols as sounds.
-Writing spread across the fertile crescent through...