World Geography Ch.2 Notes

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~The universe is made of all existing things, including space and Earth. 10-20 billion years old, unimaginable in size. ~Stars- clusters called galaxies
~Solar system- the Sun and group of bodies that revolve around it; Sun attracts by gravity; includes Sun, planets (major bodies that orbit a star), asteroids, and comets. ~Inner planets- mercury, venus, earth and mars- solid rocky surface Outer planets- Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune (Pluto)- gaseous ~Earth’s polar areas are slightly flattened (oblate spheroid) ~Moons- smaller objects that orbit a planet, body that orbits a larger body called a satellite. Moons are natural satellites. ~Solar energy, rotation, revolution, tilt

~Diameter of E 8000 mi; Sun’s is 865000 mi
~Earth rotates w-e
~The position of Earth’s axis is fixed in respect to the North Star

~Tropics-warm low latitude areas near equator
~Polar Regions- Cold, high latitudes, surrounds poles
~Direct/ indirect rays affect amt solar energy, temps, time b/t sunrise and sunset, daylight hours ~Greatest angle toward or away from sun-solstice (Dec. 21 and June 21) ~23.5* below equator Tropic of Capricorn; north is t o cancer ~66.5* bellow equator Antarctic Circle; north is arctic circle ~June- N has longer days, arctic has 24hrs of daylight, Antarctic has 24hrs darkness ~Equinox- poles have = amt daylight, direct rays strike at equator (march 21 and sept 22)

~Atmosphere-envelope of gases surrounding Earth’s surface
~Lithosphere- solid crust, rock, soil, continents, islands and ocean floor ~Hydrosphere- ALL of Earth’s water
~Biosphere- all life forms
All four major spheres are interconnected.
~Environment-surroundings- biological, chemical and physical conditions that interact with and affect life.
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