HS150 World Civilizations 1
November 27, 2012
Alexander the Great. What types of qualities come to mind when you hear that name? An idealistic king? A brutal ant agonizer? Whichever trait you choose to describe Alexander the Great, one thing is for sure: he is one of the most perplexing great figure in out time. Alexander III of Macedon, more commonly referred to as Alexander the Great, was born in Pella, in July 356 B.C.E. At the age of 20 he became the king of Macedonia when his father, Phillip II of Macedon, was assassinated in 336 B.C. Among inheriting a strong kingdom and experienced army from his father, he was also awarded the generalship of Greece. But what was really important to Alexander was pursuing his father's dream; the invasion of the Persian Empire. In 334 B.C.E., outfitted with an army of 37,000 men, he invaded the Persian-ruled Asia Minor, thus beginning a series of campaigns lasting ten years. Although Alexander's first confrontation with the Persians almost cost him his life, he pulled out with a victory and by the following spring, the entire western half of the Asia Minor was in his control. By breaking down the power of Persia into a series of crucial battles such as the battles of Gaugamela and Issus, he then overthrew the Persian King Darius III and eventually conquered the rest of the Persian Empire. While founding the first of many cities, such as Alexandria, remaining Egypt’s and the Mediterranean world’s most important city, he was also named pharaoh of Egypt itself. With his army demanding to turn back while marching east to conquer India, Alexander reluctantly turns around, leads them across southern Persia, only to have thousands of men succumb to death from the heat and dehydration. After arriving in Babylon with his remaining troops, Alexander continued planning more campaigns but exhausted from his wounds, fever and possibly excessive alcohol consumption died in 323 B.C.E....