World Bank Essay

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World Bank Enquiry

Introduction
In this task, the hypothetical given is the World Bank has been asked to implement a new “development program” in one of the eight African countries (Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The program is aimed towards social and economic objectives based on the following criteria: Reduce the rate of natural increase, improve educational opportunities especially for females, foster economic development through trade and by raising GNP per capita, reduce indebtedness and ensure more equal distribution of wealth, and lastly, ensure access to basic needs and resources especially safe water, food and shelter. Therefore, I have been asked to decide one of eight African countries aforementioned that is most deserved the development program by taking demographic, socio-economic, political factors, and trade off into consideration.

Background information of Africa
Africa is the second largest continent and the most populous continent with 1072.3 million population in 2012 (World population data sheet, 2012). In addition, Africa is known as the poorest continent in the world; in African countries the percentage of population living below poverty line are among the highest. The countries have experienced lots of civil wars, with major civil wars such as Rwandan civil war (Rwandan genocide) and war in Somalia which hindered development of the countries affected by the wars. Despite its rich availability of natural resources such as oil, iron ore, diamonds, and platinum, African countries are still lacking in ability to use the resources effectively. In fact, some conflicts in Africa were caused by the Foreign Direct Investment exploitation on the natural resources in addition to high level of government corruption.

Political map of Africa
(Bruce Jones Design Inc. 1992)

Africa is a highly indebted continent as stated in United Nation report, “In 2009, with an external debt of around US$300 billion, African countries spent about 16% of the continent’s export earnings on servicing their external debt.” (External debt in Africa. 2010). The African countries tried to promote development by encouraging trade; they became a part of African Union. Lastly, there is a high level of deadly disease such as HIV/AIDS; In Africa percentage of population aged 15-49 with HIV/AIDS is the highest among continents, 4.5%.

Methodology
1. Rank the 8 African countries based on general understanding 2. Rank the countries based on HDI
3. Choose 8 other development indicators that show the rank of countries based on each criteria of development. Use the data ranging from year 2005 to 2011 thus the data are not outdated 4. Indicators were put into table

5. Rank the countries based on each development indicators 6. The rank of each country were averaged to get the overall ranking 7. Take the bottom three least developed countries to be taken into consideration in getting the development program from World Bank. 8. After doing some background research of three least developed countries, choose one country which is most deserved the development program.

Justification of indicators used
As the modern definition of development says, a country is said to be developed or developing when it’s having an improvements not only economically but also in the quality of life of the people. One of the indicators used is HDI. Human Development Index is a composite measure of development which includes three basic components of development: Longevity (life expectancy), adult literacy and average of number of years schooling and standard of living – income adjusted to local cost of living (Nagle, G & Cooke, B. 2011).That makes HDI a good indicator of development as by looking at the figure of a country’s HDI, we can see the general development state of the country as it takes both quantitative and...
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