Benefits of greaseproof paper.
• Helps insulate items during baking
• more easy to remove from the tin
• piped items can be moved from the fridge to bench on the paper • helps maintain & protect the shape of the item
• helps retain moisture in the item during & after baking • after baking the item may be handled by using the paper, therefore improving hygiene Key ingredients used for the preparation of cakes, yeast goods & pastries. Flour| made from a range of starches such as corn, potato or wheat| Sweeteners| sugar or honey|
Fats| oils, butter, lard & margarine|
Liquids| milk, water & eggs|
Rising agents| yeast, baking powder, baking soda & tartaric acid|
Reconditioning ingredients -> with baking products this means you warm the egg, fat, flour, sugar & the liquids. Warm Ingredients will speed up the yeast activity & make it easier to aerate fats & eggs. Patisserie Recipes are often bases on ratios & percentages. Ratios are used to ensure a consistent result & give you a basic understanding of how a recipe is put together, bases on how the ingredients interact with each other during the preparation and baking. Example.
Sweet paste has a ratio of 1:2:3. This equals 1 part sugar, 2 parts fats & 3 parts flour. Using this ratio you can make any amount of sweet paste. Percentages are used so that recipes can be scaled up to large amounts & give more precise amount that what ratios do.
• flour is the basis for calculating all other ingredients & is given an arbitrary figure of 100% • other ingredients are displayed as a percentage of the weight of the flour. E.g. 200g of flour & 100g of sugar the sugar would be shown as 50%. Function of ingredients.
• Flour - to provide strength and structure
• Eggs - to provide strength & structure & lighten the texture • Sugar - have to be carried by flour & eggs & to lighten the texture. • Fat - have to be carried by flour & eggs, lighten the texture. • Liquid - have to be carried by flour & eggs & to tighten & compact the texture • Rising agents - lighten the texture.
Application & calculation of recipe balance.
Any changes to a recipe will impact on the final product.
• Increase sugar creates more open texture
• increase liquid creates more closed texture
• excessive sugar & baking powder will weaken the structure, causing it to collapse. • excessive milk/water will achieve a very closed texture with a tough, rubbery feel to the crumb & doughy uncooked appearance
When substituting or adding different products this affects the final product; • replacing eggs w/ egg yolk in short pastry. Pastry becomes drier & firm to work with and harder once baked. Replace some egg white with baking powder & water. • When adding cream cheese or cream to cake mix reduce the fat. • replacing flour with starch, total amount stays the same. Structure is still provided, but gluten development is reduced. Mixture type| Key ingredient| Key technique| Pastry items| Sweet short paste| flour, fat, sugar & eggs| rub in method & creaming method| tarts, flans, tartlets, pies & shortbread| cake mixtures| fat, flour, sugar & eggs| creaming, sugar batter, flour batter, all in methods| cakes & slices| Choux paste| Water, flour & fat| Panada production| profiteroles, éclairs, croquembouche & swans| Filo paste & strudel paste| water & flour| stretching| apple strudels, vegetable strudel & Mediterranean parcels| puff paste| water, flour, fat & acid| rolling, folding & lamination| Millie-Feuille, curry puff, cream horn & bouchees| Danish paste & croissants| flour, fat, eggs & yeast| rolling, folding & yeast development| Windmills & bear paws| Yeast paste & dough| flour, fat, eggs, sugar & yeast|...