The Austrian psychologist Dr Leo Kanner first used the term autism in 1943, but it wasn't until 1996 that the phrase Autistic Spectrum Disorder was coined by Dr Lorna Wing to identify a whole range of disorders affecting the development of social interaction, communication and social imagination, know as the Triad of Impairments. The spectrum includes classic autism, asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive development disorder (PDD). These are separate and different disorders but are all classed as being on the autistic spectrum due to the commonality of this Triad of Impairments.
Those on the autistic spectrum may be diagnosed due to displaying some, but not all, symptoms in each of the three aspects of the triad. Examples of these symptoms are as follows:
Social understanding and interaction:
·Impairment in the use of non-verbal behaviour such as facial expression, body postures and gestures and appropriate eye to eye contact ·Failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level ·Difficulty in sharing enjoyment and interests with other people ·Lack of social or emotional empathy
·May appear aloof
·Eating and sleeping problems
Language and communication:
·Delay or lack of development in spoken language
·Impairment in initiating or sustaining a conversation with others ·Difficulty understanding non-literal communication, e.g. jokes, sarcasm ·Echolalia and/or repetitive speech
·Difficulty with make-believe or social play
·Poor insight into what others are thinking
·Need for routine and difficulty with change
·Difficulty with sequencing
·Difficulty separating fact from fiction
The triad of impairment manifests itself differently in each disorder on the autistic spectrum, and the severity of the disorder can vary greatly...