the data in earlier literature showed in toxic doses to pregnant animal it can Can recurrent abortion, skeletal anomalies but in human was unclear . acute toxic dose in animals can casue lung damage and edema estimated at 3,750 ppm = 15,375 mg/m3 . In short term exposure of toxic doses reported effect on lung damage, increased plasma urea and even death if exposed at 5000 ppm= 20,000 mg/m3 for ~ 21days or cardiovascular damage if exposed 20 min/day for 21-42 days continuesly . ( Hodge , palmer 1977 / nicholas 1979 ) .
- Singh et al ( 1972) intraperitoneal injection of toxic and subtoxic doses in pregnant mice was associated with skeletal anomalies / IUGR (19% in study group vx 14.% in control) statistically not significant and from that time all female pregnant OR staff removed from the field .
- multiple studies to date found maternal exposure to more than 100 ppm can cause reduced maternal subcutaneous fat and organ weight, but no teratogenic effect .
- Mclaughlin et al( 1978 ) found vapoure exposure of 1330 ppm vx 100 ppm in 8 hours shift ,there Is no effect on fetus and pregnancy, and supported by recent studies . ( Solomon et al 1993, CDC 1998 )
Recent data showed manual mixing in bowel will decrease the vapour conc . from max 280 ppm to less than 10 ppm in 10 min ( see graph):
Now a days bone cement prepared in mixing devices...