Gender Norms & Racial Bias in the Study of the Modern "Working Mothers"
A working parent is a father or a mother who engages in a work life, aside from their duties as a childcare provider. There are many structures within families including, but not limited to, single, working mothers or single, working fathers. There are also married parents who are dual-earners, in which both parents provide income. Within these family structures, there is much concern about gender inequalities. Within the institution of gender, there are expected gender roles that society pins on both mothers and fathers that reflect in the home and at work. Motherhood Penalty and Fatherhood Bonus
On a daily basis, parents of each gender are trying to find employment in the face of the current economic crisis. Although women are easier to employ than men are due to their salary demands,women also face the difficult challenge of defending their rights as mothers in a working environment. Men have the potential of earning high regards for being a working father. Hegemonic masculinity plays a role in determining a man’s bonus. If he is white, middle class and has a stable home life with a wife and children, he is viewed as the most appropriately masculine man available to earn a raise.As such, more fathers are also offered paid paternity leave. While working mothers already earn less than women who are childless, they face other obstacles on the job. They have to find secret locations to pump breast milk while at work. They have to explain to their employers reasons for being absent, late or working from home when their child is sick or has a snow day. Working Mothers
While a wave of feminism made it possible for more women to be present in the work place, many mothers took advantage of that new found independence raising the percentage of working mothers to almost 50% in 2009.Accprding to the U.S. Department of Labor, the increase of mothers in the...