1.1 Back ground of Study
Working Capital refers to that part of the firm’s capital, which is required for financing short-term or current assets such a cash marketable securities, debtors and inventories. Funds thus, invested in current assets keep revolving fast and are constantly converted into cash and this cash flow out again in exchange for other current assets. Working Capital is also known as revolving or circulating capital or short-term capital. Therefore, working capital management is the same of liquidity management and its relate inversely with profitability. It is significance for any industries due to the investment in Current Assets (CA) must be adequate because inadequate or excessive inadequate working capital can disturb production and can also threaten the solvency of firm, if it fails to meet its current obligation excessive investment in CA should be avoided, since it impairs firm's profitability Secondly, need for working capital arises due to increasing level of business activity & it is to provided quickly some time surplus fund may arises which should be invested in Short term securities , they should not be kept idle. The importance of Working capital management compelled to the firms to try the optimal level of investment in each element such as inventories, cash, account receivables but the firm also consider to way of financing the current assets. This means, consideration of current liabilities which include account payables, notes payable, interest payable and other shot-term debt. In addition, the firm can adopt an aggressive working capital management policy with a low level of current assets as a percentage of total assets, or it may also be used for the financing decisions of the firm in the form of high level of current liabilities as a percentage of total liabilities(Nazir and Afza,2009), and it is the opposite in conservative working capital management policy. On the other hand, it should be distinguished between three policies that related directly with the working capital efficiency. First policy is collection policy, that measured by average receivables collection period (ARCP) which is meaning the average length of time required to convert the firm receivables into cash. Second policy is inventory policy, which expressed by average conversion inventory period (ACI). It means the average length of time required to convert raw materials into finished goods and then sell these goods. Third policy of working capital efficiency is payment policy, which measured by average payment period (APP) that means the length time between the purchase of materials and the payment of cash (Weston and Brigham,1993). These policies require from company to accelerate the collections of receivables, accelerate its inventory, accelerate the payment cycle, and reduce the cost of the working capital needs. Above mentioned policies can be merged them in one general policy, is called cash conversion cycle (CCC) developed by Richards and Laughlin(1980) which focuses on the length of time between when the firm makes payments and when it receives cash inflow. To fulfill the one of the most important goal of organization to maximization of share holder’s wealth of a firm is possible only when there is sufficient return from the operations and successful sales activity is necessary for earning profit sales without convert into cash immediately. To generate the sales and revenue activities there will be the s invisible time lap between the sale of good and receipt of cash. Hence, the time taken to convert raw material into cash is known as operating cycle that includes following activities in different phase. At first phase:
* Conversion of cash into raw material
* Conversion of raw material into work in progress
* Conversion of Work in progress into finished goods
* Conversion of finished goods into Sales ( Debtors and cash) At second...