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Tw elfth

Edition

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
Environments and Operations

John D. Daniels
University of Miami

Lee H. Radebaugh
Brigham Young University

Daniel P. Sullivan
University of Delaware

Pearson Education International

Contents
Preface 29 About the Authors • PART ONE 39 BACKGROUND FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS 44

1

Globalization and International Business
45
49

44

CASE: The Global Playground Introduction 48
W h a t Is International Business7.

The Forces Driving Globalization 50 Factors in Increased Globalization 51 What's Wrong with Globalization? 56 Threats to National Sovereignty 56 Economic Growth and Environmental Stress 57

Growing Income Inequality 57 s | Point ^J3ffi^S^^3 ' Offshoring Good Strategy? 58 Why Companies Engage in InternationaLBusiness Expanding Sales 60 , Acquiring Resources 60 Minimizing Risk 60

60

Modes of Operations in International Business Merchandise Exports and Imports 62 Service Exports and Imports 62 Investments 63 Types of International Organizations 63 Why International Business Differs from Domestic Business 64 Physical and Social Factors 65 The Competitive Environment 67 Looking to the Future:

61

Three Ways of Looking at Globalization

68

C A S E : Carnival Cruise Lines: Exploiting a Sea of Global Opportunity 69

74 Summary Key Terms 75 Endnotes 75 An Atlas 78 Map Index 86

Contents

• 2

PART TWO

COMPARATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL FRAMEWORKS 90
91

90

The Cultural Environments Facing Business
94 95

C A S E : The Java Lounge—Adjusting to Saudi Arabian Culture Introduction The People Factor

Cultural Awareness

96
97

A Little Learning Goes a Long Way The Nation as a Point of Reference How Cultures Form and Change

The Idea of a "Nation": Delineating Cultures
98 99

98

Language as Both a Diffuser and Stabilizer of Culture

100 103

Does Geography Matter? Where Birds of a Feather Flock Together Religion as a Cultural Stabilizer 104 Behavioral Practices Affecting Business 106 Issues in Social Stratification 106 Work Motivation 109 Relationship Preferences I II Risk-Taking Behavior I 12 Information and Task Processing I 13 Communications I 15

Dealing with Cultural Differences Accommodation I 18

118

Cultural Distance: Usefulness and Limitations I 19 Culture Shock 119 Company and Management Orientations 121 [ P o j n t B f f l J H ^ f f l Does International Business Lead to Cultural Imperialism? Strategies for Instituting Change 125 127 Looking to the Future: What Will Happen to National Cultures? C A S E : Charles Martin in Uganda: What to Do When a Manager Goes Native 128 123

Summary Key Terms Endnotes

132 133 133

3

The Political and Legal Environments Facing Business
137

136

C A S E : China—Legal Growing Pains in a Land of Opportunity Introduction 141

The Political Environment

142
143

Individualism Versus Collectivism Political Ideology 144 Trends in Political Systems 150

Contents Looking to the Future: What Might Become of Democracy? Political Risk 154 153 156

J

| Point | g ^ | ^ ^ ^ j 3 Should Political Risk Management Be an Active Strategy? The Legal Environment 157 Legal Systems 158 Types of Legal Systems 158 The Diffusion of Legal Systems 159 Trends in Legal Systems 160 Understanding Bases of Rule 161 Implications for Managers 162

Legal Issues in International Business
Operational Concerns 164 Strategic Concerns 166 Intellectual Property Rights 168

164

C A S E : Crime That Pays (and Pretty Well, Too) Summary Key Terms Endnotes 177 178 178

172

4

The Economic Environments Facing Businesses
184 186

180
181

C A S E : Economic Conundrums and the Comeback of Emerging Economies Introduction International Economic Analysis

Elements of the Economic Environment Gross National Income 187 Features of an Economy 196 Inflation 196 197 199 Unemployment Debt 198 Income Distribution Poverty 200 Labor Costs Productivity 201 202 202

187...
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