E113 Working and Learning in Sport and Fitness
1.) How do views and theories of motivation help to explain the different ways that people in sport and fitness are motivated? 1400
Motivation is in all aspects of human behaviour and can help to explain why people do what they do, Rea (2012). A classic textbook definition of motivation is given by Mullins, (2002) which states that motivation is a ‘driving force’ through which people strive to achieve their goals and fulfil a need or uphold a value.
As a sports man and coach, my view of Motivation is ‘You get out what you put in’. If you have the right attitude and desire whether it be training and preparing for an event or taking part in the event itself you are more likely to achieve the desired result if you see training as an integral of your plan for success.
The purpose of this paper is to explain the main points behind two of the theories of motivation; Intrinsic/Extrinsic, Rea (2012) and the Need Achievement theory, McCelland, 1961; Atkinson, 1974 and how these theories play an important part as my role as a goalkeeping coach.
Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation in Sport
Sebastian Coe was asked ‘what drives champion sportspeople?’ Coe (2004 cited in E113 Study Guide, 2012, p65) stated that ‘Everybody is different; we’re all motivated by very different things, for extrinsic reasons and intrinsic reasons. Some people want to be successful because they like the idea of having a big house and a Porsche on the drive’ others want to do it to explore how hard and mentally tough they are.’ Fundamentally, Coe is suggesting that people are motivated for intrinsic and extrinsic reasons. There are numerous views and theories on intrinsic motivation, however the key characteristics include;
• it is primarily driven by the individual’s interest, enjoyment and social aspects – in that a person gains personal satisfaction/pleasure from taking part in a particular sport or fitness session. • The fun, desire to learn/explore and personal challenge endured is more important than the external stimulus. (Ryan and LaGuardi, 1999) • The drive to adopt or change behaviour or improve a skill is mainly for his or her own internal fulfillment. These intrinsic points have been observed in my experience of coaching goalkeepers at Dumbarton F.C. For example, one of my goalkeepers will carry out his drills over and over again until he is satisfied that he has mastered the skill – his desire to learn and improve is completley self driven. The downside to this is that he is so focused on his own performance he forgets that it is a team sport and that overall team performance is required to achieve a winning result. As a consequence, he sometimes isolates himself from the team and tends behave superior to others, which in turn can cause friction. A second example of intrinsic behaviour is one of my goalkeepers tends to approach his mental preparation for training in the same way and is sometimes resistant to trying out new techniques or approaches which demands more of my coaching time compared to someone who is motivated by external factors.
Conversely to instinsic motivation key characteristics of extrinsic motivation includes: • The individual is driven by tangible rewards such as trohies and money or intangible rewards such as praise and recognition, Teach PE (2012) • Conforming to an agreed set of standards of pracitce as determined by the person providing the reward.
• The indiviual can be driven by internal pressure, for example parental pressure living their dream which can result in guilt, fear of failure or even punishment.
At Dumbarton one of my goalkeepers relies on intangible rewards for motivation as he responds positively to praise and recognition and this feedback also helps him drive to improve his performance. On occasion where...
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