WORK STUDY (TIME AND MOTION STUDY)
Productivity has now become an everyday watch word. It is crucial to the welfare of industrial firm as well as for the economic progress of the country. High productivity refers to doing the work in a shortest possible time with least expenditure on inputs without sacrificing quality and with minimum wastage of resources. Work-study forms the basis for work system design. The purpose of work design is to identify the most effective means of achieving necessary functions. This work-study aims at improving the existing and proposed ways of doing work and establishing standard times for work performance. Work-study is encompassed by two techniques, i.e., method study and work measurement. “Method study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work, as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing costs.” “Work measurement is the application or techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level or performance.”
There is a close link between method study and work measurement. Method study is concerned with the reduction of the work content and establishing the one best way of doing the job whereas work measurement is concerned with investigation and reduction of any ineffective time associated with the job and establishing time standards for an operation carried out as per the standard method.
Productivity is the quantitative relation between what we produce and we use as a resource to produce them, i.e., arithmetic ratio of amount produced (output) to the amount of resources (input). Productivity can be expressed as:
Productivity = Output Input
Productivity refers to the efficiency of the production system. It is the concept that guides the management of production system. It is an indicator to how well the factors of production (land, capital, labour and energy) are utilised. European Productivity Agency (EPA) has defined productivity as, “Productivity is an attitude of mind. It is the mentality of progress, of the constant improvements of that which exists. It is the certainty of being able to do better today than yesterday and continuously. It is the constant adaptation of economic and social life to changing conditions. It is the continual effort to apply new techniques and methods. It is the faith in progress.” A major problem with productivity is that it means many things to many people. Economists determine it from Gross National Product (GNP), managers view it as cost cutting and speed up, engineers think of it in terms of more output per hour. But generally accepted meaning is that it is the relationship between goods and services produced and the resources employed in their production.
7.2.1 Factors Influencing Productivity
Factors influencing productivity can be classified broadly into two categories: (A) controllable (or internal) factors and (B) un-controllable (or external) factors.
(A) CONTROLLABLE (OR INTERNAL) FACTORS
1. Product factor: In terms of productivity means the extent to which the product meets output requirements product is judged by its usefulness. The cost benefit factor of a product can be enhanced by increasing the benefit at the same cost or by reducing cost for the same benefit.
2. Plant and equipment: These play a prominent role in enhancing the productivity. The increased availability of the plant through proper maintenance and reduction of idle time increases the productivity. Productivity can be increased by paying proper attention to utilisation, age, modernisation, cost, investments etc.
Fig. 7.1 Factors...