Workplace Statistics
Jeremy Fuller
HCS 438
October 3, 2011
Howard Rubin

Workplace Statistics
Statistics is everywhere in a person’s daily life. As Stated by Bennett, Briggs, and Triola (2009), “you’ll be hard-pressed to think of any topic that is not linked with statistics in some important way” (p. 2). The hospital, which I am, employed this holds to be true. I work in an ICU, so I deal with the sickest of the sick. Statistics are a big part of this departments care and education. Each day statistics is utilized through descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and the level of statistical measurements. The advantages are seen best when educating and evaluating the progress of care for the patient and families. There is not a day that does not go by which I do not use some statistical figure or method with education or care of my patient’s. In a critical care unit, I look at trends of labs in numerical format as well as graphs or chart format too. Looking at trends of labs lets care providers as the health care provider understand what direction the health of a patient is going in. If there is a spike or drop in labs, vital signs, or health we look at graphs or charts to see if there is a correlation with meds given, abnormal labs, or change in vent settings. We look at mean and mode for renal patients to determine where a baseline creatinine clearance level may be. The doctor and nurses use law of averages when discussing possibilities and prognosis of patients. Percentages are used every day in the workplace. Example of percentages, renal doctor may estimate a renal patient possessing 20% kidney function. Another example is an echo is done and the ejection fraction of a patient cardiac patient is 35%, which is below the wanted 50-55%. This gives us an idea of how efficient or inefficient the heart is pumping blood. These are the more popular statistical applications I utilize daily in the ICU I work in on. There are many more applications used...

...Department of Decision Sciences
Rational Decision Making
Only study guide for
DSC2602
University of South Africa
Pretoria
c 2010 University of South Africa
All rights reserved.
Printed and published by the
University of South Africa,
Muckleneuk, Pretoria.
DSC2602/1/2011
Cover: Eastern Transvaal, Lowveld (1928) J. H. Pierneef
J. H. Pierneef is one of South Africa’s best known artists.
Permission for the use of this work was kindly granted
by the Schweickerdt family.
The tree structure is a recurring theme in various branches
of the decision sciences.
Preface
Everyday life is full of decisions. What should I wear today? What should I eat? Should I buy
the red or blue shirt? Should I buy a speciﬁc house or buy a piece of land? What is the shortest
route from my house to work? . . . And many more.
Some of these decisions can be made without thinking or by guesswork. Some can be solved by
reasoning or emotions. Some are a bit more diﬃcult and may need additional information.
People have been using mathematical tools to aid decision making for decades. During World
War II many techniques were developed to assists the military in decision making. These developments were so successful that after World War II many companies used similar techniques in
managerial decision making and planning.
The decision making task of modern management is more demanding and more important
than ever. Many organisations employ...

...
Bullying in the workplace
Social Psychology
Wanda Williams
DR Evans
The term workplace Bullying did not reach the United States until the late 1990's. The husband and wife team Dr's Gary and Ruth Namie both trained in Psychology introduced workplace bullying. You may ask what WorkPlace Bullying is. WorkPlace Bullying has many different definitions but the most common one. It is constant ill-treatment of one employee who is under attack by one or more employees with a mean mix of humiliation, intimidation and damage of performance. It includes being ridiculed in the presence of other employees, being lied about to others. You always have that feeling being on guards at all times. Not being able to focus on work task, loss of self-confidence on the job, out of control an anxiety, being continually left out of the loop, continually being criticized for no reason at all. WorkPlace bullies use their authority to undermine, frighten, or intimidate another person, often leaving the victim feeling fearful, powerless, incompetent, and ashamed.
(Bullying At Work - Book by Andrea Adams & Neil Crawford (1992)) describes bulling at the workplace is like a malignant cancer. It creeps up on you long before you or anyone else are...

...Worksheet 1 - Basic Concepts
1. What is Inferential statistics?
Inferential statistics uses observations of past occurrences or available data i.e. descriptive statistics to make decisions about future possibilities and/or the nature of the entire body of data. Inferential statistics draws conclusions or makes interpretations, predictions and inferences about a population based upon an analysis of a sample.
2. Give 2 different techniques which are used in descriptive statistics to represent the data.
Tables or graphs (histograms, boxplots, etc) or numerical summaries
3. Define each of the following terms:
a) Variable
The topics/issues under investigation in statistical analysis. The variable is a characteristic or property of the members of the population which may vary e.g. height, weight, perception etc.
b) Population
The total group about which information is being sought. If information is sought about voting intentions, the population is all those people eligible to vote in an electorate, or a state or the nation.
c) Sample
A sample is a group taken from the population. Most statistical situations do not allow an entire population to be used for analysis (usually because it is too large, the geographical dispersion of subjects, logistical issues, funding, time restraints etc) so a sample must be used. The sample chosen should be representative of and reflect all of the...

...Organization of Terms
Experimental Design
Descriptive
Inferential
Population
Parameter
Sample
Random
Bias
Statistic
Types of
Variables
Graphs
Measurement scales
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
Qualitative
Quantitative
Independent
Dependent
Bar Graph
Histogram
Box plot
Scatterplot
Measures of
Center
Spread
Shape
Mean
Median
Mode
Range
Variance
Standard deviation
Skewness
Kurtosis
Tests of
Association
Inference
Correlation
Regression
Slope
y-intercept
Central Limit Theorem
Chi-Square
t-test
Independent samples
Correlated samples
Analysis-of-Variance
Glossary of Terms
Statistics - a set of concepts, rules, and procedures that help us to:
organize numerical information in the form of tables, graphs, and charts;
understand statistical techniques underlying decisions that affect our lives and well-being; and
make informed decisions.
Data - facts, observations, and information that come from investigations.
Measurement data sometimes called quantitative data -- the result of using some instrument to measure something (e.g., test score, weight);
Categorical data also referred to as frequency or qualitative data. Things are grouped according to some common property(ies) and the number of members of the group are recorded (e.g., males/females, vehicle type).
Variable - property of an object or event that can take on different values. For example, college major...

...INTRODUCTION
A. Importance of Statistics
Statistical methods have been applied to problems ranging from business to medicine to agriculture. A review of the professional literature in almost any field will substantiate the extent of statistical analysis.
Accounting: Public accounting firms use statistical sampling procedures when conducting audits for their clients.
Economics: Economists use statistical information in making forecasts about the future of the economy or some aspect of it.
Marketing: Electronic point-of-sale scanners at retail checkout counters are used to collect data for a variety of marketing research applications.
Finance: Financial managers have routine contact with information in numerical form. Financial forecasts, break-even analyses, and investment decisions under uncertainty are but part of their activities.
Production: A variety of statistical quality control charts are used to monitor the output of a production process.
Statistics
the collection, organization, presentation, analysis, or interpretation of numerical data, especially as a branch of mathematics in which deductions are made on the assumption that the relationship between a sufficient sample of numerical data are characteristic of those between all such data.
it is a science which deals with the collection, organization, presentation, analysis, and interpretation of data.
B. Fields of Statistics
Descriptive...

...Trajico, Maria Liticia D.
BSEd III-A2
REFLECTION
The first thing that puffs in my mind when I heard the word STATISTIC is that it was a very hard subject because it is another branch of mathematics that will make my head or brain bleed of thinking of how I will handle it. I have learned that statistic is a branch of mathematics concerned with the study of information that is expressed in numbers, for example information about the number of times something happens. As I examined on what the statement says, the phrase “number of times something happens” really caught my attention because my subconscious says “here we go again the non-stop solving, analyzing of problems” and I was right. This course of basic statistic has provided me with the analytical skills to crunch numerical data and to make inference from it. At first I thought that I will be alright all along with this subject but it seems that just some part of it maybe it is because I don’t pay much of my attention to it but I have learned many things. I have learned my lesson.
During our every session in this subject before having our midterm examination I really had hard and bad times in coping up with this subject. When we have our very first quiz I thought that I would fail it but it did not happen but after that, my next quizzes I have taken I failed. I was always feeling down when in every quiz I failed because even though I don’t like this...

...of 1000 flights and proportions of three routes in the sample. He divides them into different sub-groups such as satisfaction, refreshments and departure time and then selects proportionally to highlight specific subgroup within the population. The reasons why Mr Kwok used this sampling method are that the cost per observation in the survey may be reduced and it also enables to increase the accuracy at a given cost.
TABLE 1: Data Summaries of Three Routes
Route 1
Route 2
Route 3
Normal(88.532,5.07943)
Normal(97.1033,5.04488)
Normal(107.15,5.15367)
Summary Statistics
Mean
88.532
Std Dev
5.0794269
Std Err Mean
0.2271589
Upper 95% Mean
88.978306
Lower 95% Mean
88.085694
N
500
Sum
44266
Summary Statistics
Mean
97.103333
Std Dev
5.0448811
Std Err Mean
0.2912663
Upper 95% Mean
97.676525
Lower 95% Mean
96.530142
N
300
Sum
29131
Summary Statistics
Mean
107.15
Std Dev
5.1536687
Std Err Mean
0.3644194
Upper 95% Mean
107.86862
Lower 95% Mean
106.43138
N
200
Sum
21430
From the table above, the total number of passengers for route 1 is 44,266, route 2 is 29,131 and route 3 is 21,430 and the total numbers of passengers for 3 routes are 94,827.
Although route 1 has the highest number of passengers and flights but it has the lowest means of passengers among the 3 routes. From...

...compliments the regular mathematics and therefore both are tested in primary schools. Mathematics is the written application of operation. It teaches students to think clearly, reason well and strategize effectively. Mental Mathematics is the ability to utilise mathematical skills to solve problems mentally. The marks scored by pupils generate statistics which are used by teachers to analyse a student’s performance and development of theories to explain the differences in performance.
The Standard 3 class is where the transition from junior to senior level occurs where teachers expect the transference of concrete to abstract thinking would have occurred.
A common theory by many primary school teachers is ‘Students perform better in Mathematics than Mental math. Mental math is something that has to be developed and involves critical thinking. Mental math requires quick thinking and the student must solve the problem in their minds whereas in regular mathematics, the problem can be solved visually. Therefore, teachers should take these factors into consideration while testing and marking students in these areas.’
In this study, the statistics of 30 students of a standard 3 class of San Fernando Boys’ Government School will be analysed to determine the truth of this theory.
DATA COLLECTION METHODS
Mathematics and mental mathematics marks of term 1 of the class of 2013 were obtained from a Standard 3 teacher of San Fernando Boys’...

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