The purpose of work measurement is to determine the time it ought to take to do a job. The problem is in the definition of "ought to." Work measurement analyst define this as the time it should take an experienced and well-trained operator to perform the job in a specific and well-defined method at a speed that can be maintained all day, day after day, without undue fatigue. This time, called standard time, can be divided into several parts: the actual elements used to perform the job; the rating factor used to determine the "normal" pace of these elements (the method used to determine the "ought to" time); and an allowance for personal time, unavoidable delays, and slowing due to fatigue.

There are four main systems of work measurement. First, and most used, is time study, specifically, stop-watch time study. Motion picture and video cameras, computers, and various production timing devices can also be used in the place of, and in conjunction with, the stop watch. The second system, work sampling, is a statistical procedure for measuring work and requires an understanding of the techniques of statistics and probability.

The third system, predetermined time systems (PDT), uses sets of tables of basic motions that have already been "normalized" by experts. Thus, PDT systems do not require the analyst to "rate" or "level" the measurement. Finally, there is the standard data system of work measurement which, strictly speaking, is not a measurement technique at all. Here similar elements made up of similar groups of motions from the other measurement systems are tabled and then reused as needed for subsequent products and standards.

USES OF WORK MEASUREMENT

Work measurement is used to determine standards against which comparisons can be made for a variety of purposes.

1. Wage incentives. If workers are to be paid in accordance with the amount of work accomplished rather than the amount of time expended (hourly), some means of determining an acceptable,...

...EXPERIMENT #1: SCIENTIFIC MEASUREMENT AND ERROR
By:
Date: 8/26/13
Objectives: The goals of the experiment are to learn how to use different types of scientific glassware and to understand the significance of precision and accuracy in scientific measurement.
Procedure: No modifications were made during the experiment.
Data: Data tables for the experiment are provided on attached sheet.
Calculations:
Table I -
Table III –
Table IV –
Conclusion: By performing the experiment I was able to meet the two objections provided. During the first portion of the procedure, an analytical balance (#2) was used to determine the weight of a given bottle, the bottle’s lid, and the combination of the two. After taking four measurements of each, I then calculated the means and standard deviations. For the data recorded in table I the values computed for the standard deviations were very small (.0001 g - .0002 g), so the measurements given by the analytical balance are very precise. After the means were calculated, I compared the weight measured of the lidded bottle to the weight of the same lidded bottle on four different balances. Since the largest gap between all of the results was .0005 g, it’s clear that an analytical balance is an extremely accurate instrument for measuring weight, assuming there are no systematic errors present at the time.
The data recorded in...

...Lab 1- Measurements of a Table
ABSTRACT:
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the value of the acceleration of a free falling object and to describe the range of experimental values. Within the experiment the items used to help provide the conclusion that 2/3 or our values fell within the 9.62m/s^2- 9.78m/s^2 range was a Vernier data-collection interface, Logger Pro Application and the apparatus Photogate. The results found within the 30 trial periods were all precise. It was believed that the data would not be exact to the actual acceleration of gravity but would be precise with a low percentage of error, the results showed to be true to what was expected.
OBJECTIVE:
To determine the mean value, the standard deviation of the mean and significant figures through measured values. Also to gain an understanding of propagation of errors while enhancing knowledge of precision and accuracy.
PROCEDURE:
Within the lab a 20cm wooden cylinder is provided to measure the length and then the width of the lab table. The group was to measure the length and the width of the table a total of twenty times; with a group a four each individual measured the table length and width a total of five times each. Once all measurements are calculated, the provided values were entered into the system LoggerPro for visual analysis of the data.
RESULTS:
Table 1.Data From Experiment
#
Length(cm)
Width(cm)
#
Length(cm)
Width(cm)...

...B. make inferences about a population
C. determine if the data adequately represents the population
D. gather or collect data
2) The general process of gathering, organizing, summarizing, analyzing, and interpreting data is called
A. statistics
B. descriptive statistics
C. inferential statistics
D. levels of measurement
3) The performance of personal and business investments is measured as a percentage, return on investment. What type of variable is return on investment?
A. Qualitative
B. Continuous
C. Attribute
D. Discrete
4) What type of variable is the number of robberies reported in your city?
A. Attribute
B. Continuous
C. Discrete
D. Qualitative
5) What level of measurement is the number of auto accidents reported in a given month?
A. Nominal
B. Ordinal
C. Interval
D. Ratio
6) The names of the positions in a corporation, such as chief operating officer or controller, are examples of what level of measurement?
A. Nominal
B. Ordinal
C. Interval
D. Ratio
7) Shoe sizes, such as 7B, 10D, and 12EEE, are examples of what level of measurement?
A. Nominal
B. Ordinal
C. Interval
D. Ratio
8) Monthly commissions of first-year insurance brokers are $1,270, $1,310, $1,680, $1,380, $1,410, $1,570, $1,180, and $1,420. These figures are referred to as
A. a histogram
B. raw data
C. frequency...

...Productivity Measurement at International, National and
organization level.
PRODUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
Productivity measurement is the quantification of both the output and input resources of a productive system.
The goal of productivity measurement is productivity improvement, which involves a combination of increased effectiveness and a better use of available resources.
While productivity can be given the sort of short hand definition as the ratio between output and input
USE OF PRODUCTIVITY MEASURES
Productivity is a required tool in evaluating and monitoring the performance of an organization, especially a business organization. When directed at specific issues and problems, productivity measures can be very powerful. In essence, productivity measures are the yardsticks of effective resource use.
Managers are concerned with productivity as it relates to making improvements in their firm. Proper use of productivity measures can give the manager an indication of how to improve productivity: either increase the numerator of the measure, decrease the denominator, or both.
Managers are also concerned with how productivity measures relate to competitiveness. If two firms have the same level of output, but one requires less input this is due to a higher level of productivity, that firm will be able to charge a lower price and increase its market share or charge the same price as the competitor and enjoy...

...Satish & Anangpal (Research Scholars) Singhania University
Dr. Kamlesh Kumar Sharma (Research Supervisor) - Singhania University
TITLE OF THE RESEARCH STUDY: Relationship of selected anthropometric measurement with the performance of basketball players of Faridabad district (Haryana)
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between anthropometric measurements to the playing ability in basketball (Jonshon’s Basketball test). 50 male and 50 female basketball national level players of Faridabad District (Haryana state) were selected as subject for the purpose of this study. Present study exhibited the insignificant relationship with field goal speed test (basketball playing ability) and with throw for accuracy at the chosen level but the value of product moment correlation is quite higher which may be understood that the size of body may contribute to basketball playing ability when combined with other variables. Finding of study show the insignificant relationship between body weight and basketball playing ability which may be attribute to the fact that basketball players do not require bulky body which may hidden the performance of the players. The findings reveal that insignificant relationship exist between let length and Field ball speed test and dribble test (basketball playing ability) no significant relationship was found with throw ball accuracy. It is because of the fact that a leg with a good length...

...during measurements. For an experiment to be successful, especially those that involve measurements, the number of significant figures must be known. Significant figures are the digits required to express a measured quantity and thus reflect the accuracy of the measurement.
Uncertainty is defined as the smallest increment that can be measured and is defined by the instrument used.
An error is defined as any deviation from the standard value. Errors could either be systematic or random. Systematic errors are caused by measurements that are not properly calibrated while random errors are caused by chance.
Methodology
Figure 1: Experimental set-up using vernier caliper
Figure 2: Micrometer caliper
In the experiment, three measuring devices are used to obtain the measurement of a sphere with known composition: vernier caliper, micrometer caliper and a foot rule.
Ten individual measurements are then made for each of the device. After the measurements are obtained, the mean diameter of the sphere was calculated using the formula:
Mean Diameter = Σdiameter
n
Using this data, the deviation of each measurement was calculated,
d = /reading – mean diameter/
as well as its average deviation
(a.d.) = Σd
n
The volume and the density of the sphere were then calculated using the appropriate formula.
Volume (V) =...

...
Measurement Scales Paper
MKT/441
Donald Reinhart
Measurement Scales Paper
Market research in business is important by keeping up with the everyday life of consumer society. Market research helps businesses study what are the likes and dislikes of consumers, what is popular, and what products are already out in the market. Market research collects data and information about the products and services from the past, present and potential use from the customers. Customers are the main focus when conducting research into a product or service. Businesses study consumers’ buying habits, spending locations, and characteristics. Other than studying consumers, business also study each other by researching their marketing information, products, services, and their consumer targets. To do market research, certain measurement scales are used, especially when conducting a questionnaire. Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio are four out of six measurement scales that are used in questionnaires.
Nominal
Nominal scales are a form of categorizing objects by labeling the variables. Nominal scales are usually in form of yes or no answers where the object is in a category or not and do not have any numerical significance. Nominal scales do not have an order. The characteristics of nominal scales can be “choose one”, “choose all that apply”, “choose one and specify”, or “choose all and...

...SI Unit | SI Symbol | Fundamental SI Units involved |
frequency | hertz | Hz | s-1 |
force | Newton | N | kg*m*s-2 |
work/energy | joule | J | kg*m2*s-2 |
power | watt | W | kg*m2*s-3 |
pressure | Pascal | Pa | kg*m-1*s-2 |
charge | coulomb | C | A*s |
potential difference | volt | V | kg*m2*s-3*A-1 |
resistance | ohm | Ω | kg*m2*s-3*A-2 |
Systematic and Random Errors
* Systematic error
* Affects each measurement the same way
* Error by system
* E.g. lack of calibration (zero error)
* E.g. Wrong theory or equation
* Not accurate
* Random error
* Different for each measurement
* By human error or environmental influence
* E.g. temperature variation
* E.g. Not enough data collected
* Not precise
* Accuracy – how close the results are from the true value
* Indicated by relative or percentage error
* Precision – how the different results vary from each other
* Indicated by absolute error
* Reduce random error
* Consistent experimental procedure
* Choose instrument with higher degree of accuracy
* Reduce variation (air current, temperature variation, vibration…)
* Systematic error corrected before the experiment
Significant Figures
* Used to indicate degree of accuracy of precision in a measurement
* Rules for significant figures:
* All non-zero...