ASSESSMENT AND SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS.
Q1.In the earliest forms of nursing, men were the carers of the sick and dying. The hospitals were founded by the military, and little equipment existed to enable the wounded to recover. Throughout the 16th to early 19th Centuries, nursing was carried out by both men and women, in overcrowded wards, training for nurses was non-existent, and many nurses were of bad character. By the middle of the 19th Century, the first training school for nurses was established in Germany by Theodor Fliedner. This training centre became famous for its nursing standards of both training and quality of care. Post 1853 Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War set about establishing clean water, personal hygiene programs, nourishing food chains, medical supplies, as well as using the natural sunlight to help the soldiers to recover. “With Nightingale the focus was on nurses working systematically in the environment of healthcare, healing and restoring people to health.”(Potter and Perry 1993,pp.208-209) Present day nursing has changed from one of task orientation to one of accountability and responsibility for one’s actions. Nursing looks at the whole part of a person rather than just the part that is ill or diseased. Currently nursing is done at universities , technical and further education centres and at registered training organizations. This is a major shift away from all the training being completed in the hospital setting. Today, clinical placement is done within a range of healthcare settings, eg. Aged care facilities, community health centres, hospitals and mental health centres. Q2. Nursing theories are important to our practice because they “can inform the way in which we view the person, health, the environment and nursing itself”(Funnell, Koutikidis & Lawrence 2005, p.25.) Nursing theories also tell us the “why and when nursing takes place and give us an understanding of how the nursing practice progresses, as well as learning when we need to make any changes to the application of our nursing practices.”(Funnel, Koutikidis & Lawrence 2005, p.18).
Q3A. Confidentiality is defined as “the non disclosure of information about a person unless consented to by that person, or by another authorized person, or under statutory authority.” (Harris, Nagy, & Vardaxis 2010, p.417. This means under no circumstance can we speak, write about, print or use any form of electronic means to share or discuss information given to us by any person without their consent. Q3B. Duty of Care. Mosby’s Dictionary states duty of care to be a “legal obligation of one person to take reasonable care to avoid causing harm to another, the scope of duty being limited by principles of forseeability of harm and proximity of the parties, including all the circumstances of the relationship between the parties.” (Mosby’s Dictionary p.562.) Bailliere’s dictionary agrees with Mosby’s definition of duty of care as it states in part “the law has developed a set of rules on the expected standards prevailing at the time of any case questioning the issue.” (Bailliere’s Dictionary p.126.) Q3C. Mosby’s Dictionary states Primary healthcare to be “a basic level of healthcare that includes programs directed at the promotion of health, early diagnosis of disease or disability, and the prevention of disease.”(Mosby’s Dictionary p.1409.) Brown and Edwards agree with the above definition as they state Primary healthcare’s main focus “is to keep the individual and community as well as possible, and it uses a range of programs eg. Education, immunizations, baby monitoring through maternal child health clinics to help the people to retain and/or maintain their health to an optimal level.” (Brown and Edwards 2007 p.49.”
Q4. Nurses deliver healthcare in many places besides the hospital environment. Some other health delivery environments are as follows: