Work: An Ontological Presupposition of Essence of Social Being
Many social theorists and intellectuals have argued that since his existence as a social being, man is continuously involved in the process of evolution. Throughout history certain countries and civilizations have glittered for a while, then for one reason or another been eclipsed If we observe the stage when man invented fire until contemporary so-called modern world, the notion of “work” is attached with human being at fundamental level whether it is formation of stone tools or running a multinational company. Interestingly, every time notion of work is incomplete without ideas and its context. Initially, ideas come with realization of existence of being. The context attaches attributes to the existence of being. This produces the possibility of engagement in the sphere of interaction. The mutual interaction between human beings forms a complex of relationship, what we call as society. In this way, being also becomes social being. Now, this social being channelizes himself through work in active sphere of society. Work, by definition is “The carrying out of tasks which enable people to make a living within the social and economic context in which they are located1.” Thus, an individual as a part of any social structure contributes in the form of work.
Work: Structures and Processes
Sociology, as a science of society, provides us with a range of insights, concepts, ideas, theories and research findings, which help us to understand the wide range of work and work related activities that occur in the context of the broader social and cultural arrangements. Work is always rooted, in some way, back to the wider culture, social structure and processes of the society in which it takes place. These structures, processes, norms and values, with all their related inequalities, ideologies and distribution of power, are the source of both constraints and opportunities, which people meet in conducting their lives. Watson2 says that the better and more widely these cultures, structures and processes are understood and the better the connections between specific actions or arrangements and these basic patterns are appreciated, then the greater is the opportunity for the human control over work, industry and every other kind of social institution. Working patterns and working arrangements are seen as both the result of the activities of individuals and as something, which, in turn, influences, encourages and constrains the individual. As an
11. Watson, Tony, 2003, Sociology, Work and Industry, Routledge, London (p. 1) 2 ibid.
agent, each human individual has wants, aspirations and a sense of identity, which has a determining role in deciding there any decision to speak or act in a particular context. However, at the same time, in some sense, the outcome depends on the ‘society’ in which these people grew up. It channeled male and female children into different spheres of activity. The famous statement of Simone de Beauvoir that a woman is not born but made reminds it. There were clearly pressures on each child from the world around them: from role examples observed as they grew up to the opportunities made available to boys and girls in both education and initial employment. Therefore, It is easily possible to see two mutually exclusive alternative types of explanation emerging here: agency and choice on the one hand and structural channeling on the other. Since, Sociology as a discipline emerges in the context of industrialized society, thus the further explanation of sociologist will concentrate around conceptualization and theorization of work in modern industrial society. Work: Some Sociological Perspectives Firstly, Emile Durkheim, one of the founding fathers of sociology argues that individuals perform different tasks and often have different values and interest, the order and very...
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