Woodrow Wilson: Early Years and Important Alliances

Topics: Woodrow Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft Pages: 21 (7467 words) Published: May 7, 2013
Woodrow Wilson
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Woodrow Wilson|
28th President of the United States|
In office
March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921|
Vice President| Thomas R. Marshall|
Preceded by| William Howard Taft|
Succeeded by| Warren Harding|
34th Governor of New Jersey|
In office
January 17, 1911 – March 1, 1913|
Preceded by| John Fort|
Succeeded by| James Fielder
as Acting Governor|
13th President of Princeton University|
In office
Preceded by| Francis Patton|
Succeeded by| John Stewart (Acting)|
Personal details|
Born| December 28, 1856
Staunton, Virginia, U.S.|
Died| February 3, 1924 (aged 67)
Washington, D.C., U.S.|
Resting place| Washington National Cathedral
Washington, D.C.|
Political party| Democratic|
Spouse(s)| Ellen Axson (1885–1914; her death)
Edith Bolling (1915–1924; his death)|
Children| Margaret
Alma mater| Davidson College
Princeton University
University of Virginia
Johns Hopkins University|
Profession| Academic
Political scientist|
Religion| Presbyterianism|
Signature| |
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States, in office from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910, and then as the Governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913. Running against Republican incumbent William Howard Taft, Socialist Party of America candidate Eugene V. Debs, and former President Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party candidate Theodore Roosevelt, Wilson was elected President as a Democrat in 1912. In his first term as President, Wilson persuaded a Democratic Congress to pass major progressive reforms. Historian John M. Cooper argues that, in his first term, Wilson successfully pushed a legislative agenda that few presidents have equaled, remaining unmatched up until the New Deal.[1] This agenda included the Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, the Federal Farm Loan Act and an income tax.Child labor was curtailed by the Keating–Owen Act of 1916, but the U.S. Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in 1918. Wilson also had Congress pass the Adamson Act, which imposed an 8-hour workday for railroads.[2] Wilson, at first unsympathetic, became a major advocate forwomen's suffrage after public pressure convinced him that to oppose women's suffrage was politically unwise. Although Wilson promised African Americans "fair dealing...in advancing the interests of their race in the United States", the Wilson administration implemented a policy of racial segregation for federal employees.[3] Although considered a modern liberal visionary giant as President, in terms of implementing domestic race relations, however, Wilson was "deeply racist in his thoughts and politics, and apparently was comfortable being so."[4] Narrowly re-elected in 1916, he had full control of American entry into World War I, and his second term centered on World War I and the subsequent peace treaty negotiations in Paris. He based his re-election campaign around the slogan, "He kept us out of war", but U.S. neutrality was challenged in early 1917 when the German Empire began unrestricted submarine warfare despite repeated strong warnings and tried to enlist Mexico as an ally. In April 1917, Wilson asked Congress to declare war. During the war, Wilson focused on diplomacy and financial considerations, leaving the waging of the war itself primarily in the hands of the Army. On the home front in 1917, he began the United States' first draft since the American Civil War; borrowed billions of dollars in war funding through the newly established Federal Reserve Bank and Liberty Bonds; set up the War Industries Board; promoted labor union cooperation; supervised agriculture and food production...
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