“WOODROW WILSON’S FOURTEEN POINTS”
Astrid Leony Longdong / 043 2010 0004
Dwi Setiawati Endi / 043 2010 0009
Candice Hermawan / 043 2010 0011
Mella Melia / 043 2010 0016
Lecturer: Indra V. A. Krishnamurti, S. Sos, M. Asian St.
Date/Day: Thursday, 27th September 2012
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITAS PELITA HARAPAN
WOODROW WILSON’S FOURTEEN POINTS
28th President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, played a very dominant role in the end of World War I with his Fourteen Points, which also known as Wilson’s Fourteen Points. The Fourteen Points as set forth by Wilson can be seen as the following: 1. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind, but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view. The purpose is clearly to prohibit treaties, sections of treaties or understandings that are secret. It is proposed that in future every treaty be part of the public law of the world and that every nation assume a certain obligation in regard to its enforcement. Nations cannot assume obligations in matters of which they are ignorant; and therefore any secret treaty tends to undermine the solidity of the whole structure of international covenants which it is proposed to erect.
2. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants. It refers to navigation under the three following conditions: (1) general peace; (2) a general war, entered into by the League of Nations for the purpose of enforcing international covenants; (3) limited war, involving no breach of international covenants. Simply said, it is meant free navigation of all seas.
3. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance. The proposal means the destruction of all special commercial agreements, each putting the trade of every other nation in the League on the same basis, the most-favored-nation clause applying automatically to all members of the League of Nation. This is now what we known as free trade in which all economic barriers between countries will end.
4. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest points consistent with domestic safety. "Domestic safety" clearly implies not only internal policing, but the protection of territory against invasion and the reduction of weapon numbers.
5. A free, open-minded and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty, the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined. The German colonies and any other colonies which may come under international consideration as a result of the war. The stipulation is that in the case of the German colonies the title is to be determined after the conclusion of the war by "impartial adjustment" based on certain principles.
6. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and...