Women's Contribution to the Family Budget

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Women’s Contribution to the Family Budget: Informal Labor Market in Pakistan (A Case Study of Bahawalpur District)

Thesis submitted by Tasnim Kausar Department of Economics The Islamia University of Bahawalpur.

Supervisor Prof. Dr. Shahnawaz Malik Department of Economics Bahauddin Zakarya University Multan.

Dedicated
to Sakina*

*Who was spreading stones on the road for the smooth through for development of Bahawalpur. Her infant was sleeping on roadside under the shadow of basket of stones. Sakina was day dreaming of pacca (cemented) house for her family.

Acknowledgement
I am grateful to Allah Subhana Hu Wa Tala who gave me the courage to see and study the daughters of Hawa who are struggling for survival of their families that is ultimately connected with the economic support at the national level. I would like to acknowledge the supervision provided by Prof. Dr. Shahnawaz Malik. I would specially like to thank the co-operation received from my colleagues in Department of Economics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur. I also acknowledge the help and co-operation of my children to complete this thesis. Last but not least, I would like to thank the women interviewed for their time and patience with the study’s numerous questions. Their co-operation is gratefully acknowledged, without their help this study would not have been possible.

Tasnim Kausar

Declaration

I hereby declare that the work described in my thesis “Contribution of Women in Family Budget: Informal Labor Market” has been carried out by me under the supervision of Professor Dr. Shahnawaz Malik.

I also hereby declare that this thesis has been submitted for any degree elsewhere. Five copies of this thesis are submitted for further processing.

Tasnim Kauser

Statement
It is certified that the work contained in this thesis entitled “Contribution of Women in Family Budget: Informal Labor Market” has been carried out under my supervision by Tasnim Khan and is approved for submission in fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ph.D. in Economics.

Prof. Dr. Shahnawaz Malik Supervisor

Contents

Page List of Tables Acronyms Abstract iv v vi

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………… 1.1 Informal Labor Market 1.2 Women in Informal Labor Market 1.3 Rural Women in Informal Sector 1.4 Plan of Study 1.5 Objectives of the Study 1 3 10 15 17 17

Chapter 2
SITUATION OF WOMEN IN PAKISTAN ……………….………………..…………… 2.1 Health Conditions of Women 2.2 Situation of Female Education in Pakistan 2.3 Women’s Employment 2.4 Aspirations of Women 2.5 Employment Situation of Women 2.6 Violence Against Women 2.7 Bonded Labor and Women 2.8 Reproductive Behavior of Women 2.9 Micro Credit for Women 2.10 Pakistan Labor Policies and Working Women 19 23 28 29 30 31 32 35 36 38 41

Chapter 3
REVIEW OF LITERATURE …………………………………………………………… 47

Chapter 4
ECONOMICS OF WORKING WOMEN AND INFORMAL SECTOR ……………. 4.1 Decision-Making of Work 4.2 Gender Preferences for Work 4.3 Time Allocation for Work 4.4 Human Capital and Income Gap by Gender 4.5 Female Participation in Economic Activities: Trends 4.6 Female Participation in Labor Market in Pakistan 4.7 Female Participation in Informal Economy 4.8 Continuums of Informal Sector 89 89 94 96 97 98 102 104

106

i

Chapter 5
METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION ……………………………………… 5.1 Model and Analysis of Data 5.2 Concepts and Definitions 5.3 Classification of informal Sector by Labor Categories 5.4 Development of Questionnaire 5.5 Sample Design and Data Collection 5.6 Mode of Survey 5.7 Variables 5.8 Limitations of the Study 120 120 126 131 135 137 141 142 154

Chapter 6
QUALITATIVE ESTIMATES OF WORKING WOMEN ………....…………………. 6.1 Qualitative Estimates for Working Women 6.2 Socio-economic Profile of Households 6.3 Empowerment of Women 6.4 Age and Marital Status of Working Women 6.5 Income Level of Household 6.6 Educational Status of Working Women 6.7 Housing Conditions of Working Women 6.8...
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