Running Head: WOMEN IN THE MEDIA IN KUWAIT
Women in The Media in Kuwait Research
This essay will discuss women in the media in Kuwait. It is very important to define media to allow better understanding of the power and benefits women gained from the media. Women role was different in pre-oil period and after oil discovery. Education made significant differences in Kuwaiti women lives. They entered Media holding bachelors degrees and PhDs and insisted to fight until they won their social and political rights. In addition, in appreciation for their efforts I wrote the biographies of some powerful media women in Kuwait.
Women in The Media in Kuwait Research
Kuwait is a Middle Eastern country boarded on the east by the Arabian Gulf and slot in between Iraq and Saudi Arabia on the south and west. Kuwait became a fully independent country since 1961. Kuwait was the first Arab country in the Gulf to have an elected parliament. Women were not allowed to vote or elect or stand as candidates in the elections until 1999, when Shaikh Jaber Al Ahmed Al Sabah issued a decree giving women their political rights but it was defeated in the National Assembly. Finally, in 2005 Kuwaiti parliament gave women their fully political rights. In pre-oil, Kuwaiti women were forbidden from going to schools and usually were allowed only to recite Quran at (Al Mutawa’a) house. The merchant classes were the first to educate their daughters to extend their families’ power. After the new oil economy stage, women started to participate in the society to change stereotypes and traditional role. In addition they started to deal with the positive changes on lifestyle and contributed in the development of Kuwait society. Without any doubt, when women in Kuwait were granted the right for education by law, their life started to change and became part of the workforce. Education gave women the power to claim for their rights by the efforts of other women who were working in media sectors. Kuwaiti women in media highlighted and raised their problems and demands through TV and Radio programs, articles published in the newspapers, TV drama and plays on the theatre stage. Media was the most effective field that women made progress and gained power to achieve their goals. Media is a broad term that includes mass and social media; mass media is the means of transmitting messages to broad audiences. It includes television, radio, newspaper, magazines, books and so forth. Social media are the means of connecting and interacting actively it includes cell phones, e-mails, PTA and the web. Media in Kuwait includes news, newspapers, television, radio, journals, news services, press abstracts, publishing and bookseller associations. Kuwaiti women made a good contribution in the media because Kuwait has the most vocal and transparent media among Arab countries also well known in the freedom of press. The government funds some of the newspapers and satellite channels and owned Kuwait news agency (KUNA). I 2009, Kuwait had fifteen newspapers companies besides the English newspapers; Arab times, and Kuwait times. The Kuwaiti law controls media to forbid insulting religion references related to God, Islam, and Profit Mohammed (PBUH). Moreover, another law was made to forbid anybody from criticizing the ruling family in specific the Emir. In order to join media a person has to stick to the pervious laws concerning religion and the Emir otherwise he/she will be eligible for fines or send to the jail. Under the Press and Publication Law, the government suspended some of the local newspapers for violating this law for example; Al-Anba’a was suspended for five days for publishing an article about separating between the positions of crown prince from prime minister. Women respected both laws in media especially in the press. In the old days rarely women were encourage to join media in Kuwait...
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