Women As Commodity
Since ancient times, There people who are being sold just like a mere things sold in a market to be slaves, pimp, and it's quiet alarming that even naive child is a victim of this kind of discursive life. Women have been also analyzed to be part of those bundles of things paraded, bidded for, sold, and traded off despite the fact that women are making huge contributions for the development of their countries in different aspects today, still women are being tricked as commodity.
In Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, not only focused on the love story of Claudio and Hero; the volatile relationship of Beatrice and Benedik but it also goes much deeper in exploring the tensions between the sexes in a society where female chastity is equated with virtue, and that virtues serve as the measurement of a woman's worth. In women in the story interprets Shakespeare's viewpoint about women state before.
"That women were treated as commodities on the early modern marriage exchange has, of course, been well established. Numerous social historians of the early modern period have documented the value attached to daughters as a means by which to advance family name and social position. Although marriage formations differed widely according to social ranking, as B.J. Sokol and Mary Sokol note in Shakespeare, Law, and Marriage, “the convention among the gentry and aristocracy was for marriages to be arranged by families with a view to securing advantages or alliances, conforming to a patriarchal model.”
Numerous early modern conduct manuals and sermons, in fact, warn that a woman’s worth was linked to her chastity, a worth which could be lost or diminished due to real or, in the case of Shakespeare’ Hero, perceived sexual indiscretion.
Commercial Surrogacy and the redefinition of Motherhood
The childbearing days are no longer a required element in the reproductive period for some. Commercial surrogacy has opened the doors for many who can’t bear children of their own. Surrogate motherhood has increased notoriety as means for obtaining children. A commercial surrogate mother is paid to produce a child for someone else and then has to give up all parental rights and love for the child, she then, has to allow others to raise the child as if their own. This behavior has raised many concerns about the suitable scope of the market in commercial surrogacy. Some totally object to commercial surrogacy because the children and women’s reproductive ability are treated as a commodity like children as buyer durables and women as baby factories. Since the 1970s, there has been rapid and wide ranging development in the field of new reproductive technologies (NRT). With donor insemination (DI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF), previously infertile couples have been given new hope and the chance to have children. A more recent addition to these new methods of reproduction has been the combination of DI and IVF with surrogate mother arrangements. This technique has subtly changed the realm of reproduction, for with the addition of a third party (the surrogate) to the reproductive environment, the nature of motherhood, fatherhood, and the allocation of parental rights and duties has come into question.
Before the advent of NRTs, there were essentially two forms of motherhood recognized in Western society, the biological and the social mother. Except for adoption, fostering, or step parenting, the biological mother was assumed to also be the social mother. This is not surprising, as motherhood has never been ambiguous; one might not know who one’s father was, but one’s mother’s identity was rarely in question. However, before women were granted legal personhood (1929 in Canada), a child’s legal guardian or parent was the father (based on property rights arguments); historically, illegitimate children were not considered to have a legal parent, either mother or father....