By Prof. D. B. Gadling & Karuna Raut Dept. of Mass Comm. & Journalism, Solapur University, Solapur. Email : email@example.com Contribution of Social Reformers Gender equality is the point of utmost importance in the empowerment of women. This concept is not altogether new to India. Various attempts were made to spread it by social reformers in India. During the 19th century Raja Rammohan Roy raised his voice against child marriages, Sati and polygamy. Maharshi Ravindranath Tagore, Keshav Chandra Sen, Ishwarchnandra Vidyasagar also fought against bad practices in the society. In Maharashtra, Dhondo Keshav Karve and Mahatma Jyoteeba Phule tried their level best for the upliftment of women. The marriages Act of 1872 approved widow marriages, intercaste marriages and banned child marriages and polygamy. Arya Smaj advocated equality for women by establishing a large number of schools for boys and girls all over the country. M. K. Gandhi made serious attempts for the equality of women and women’s participation in every aspect of life. Attempts made for the upliftment of women after the independence Fundamental Rights Article 14 states, “The state shall not deny to any person equality before law…..” Article 14 prohibits discrimination against any citizen on the ground of religion, caste, sex or race. Under article 39 (d), the state is urged to provide with equal pay for equal work to both men and women.1 In spite of various attempts cited above, the present position of women is not satisfactory. Hence it is thought now that mere remedies are not enough for women empowered. The realities of women empowerment are : 1. Society is dominated by the men Women constitute around 50% of the world’s population, but in no country they get their due; not even in developed countries. The positions at the highest level- political or administrative- are occupied mostly by men. Few women have risen to the top most elected offices like the President of a country or the highest executive office like the Prime Minister, Sirimavo Bandaranaika, Chandrika Kumaratunga, Golda Mier, Mrs. Pratibha Patil, Indiara Gandhi, Margaret Thacher, Benazir Bhutto, Kaklida Zia, Sheikh Haseena Wazed, are exceptions.2 Even in the Victorian era it was considered that the man is for the sword and a woman is for the needle. It shows that the society was dominated by men. They determined the conditions governing the terms of relationship between man and woman. Since men fought the wars and ran the enterprises of industrial production, they arrogated to themselves superior position and gave women a subordinate role in social and economic activities of communities.
2. There should be balance in Male, Female Sex Ratio A surveys made by the DGIPR in September 2011 indicates that the sex ratio between the male and Female are decreasing day by day. It is not a question that we can solve with the help of Law. It is our duty and responsibility to aware each other about the male, female ration. According to 2011 census report the sex ratio of male and female are: Male In Country Maharashtra Urban Rural 1000 1000 1000 1000 : Female 940 925 899 848
And the total ratio of the Male and Female in the age of 0 to 6 are: In State Urban Rural 1000 1000 1000 883 888 880
The Sex ration of Female behind 1000 male the figure which is cited above is very less. So it’s matter to concern and we need to increase the ration of women.3 3. Community needs to eradicate their concerns like 1. Literacy, Slum development, women’s health and training Women Empowerment in Slum Areas: Special reference to Kolhapur District a research study made by Dr. C. S. Bhanumate indicated that there is no liberty given to the women in decision making. Even the women are not asked to buy household chores. All rights are reserved to the men. (ie. Father or the husband of their family) Importance given to the boy than the girl, even the girl not permitted to go to...