Have you ever been trying to figure something out that you just can't
piece together and then all of a sudden have it hit you? If you have, you've
experienced the type of learning called insight learning.
The term insight refers to solving a problem through understanding the
relationships various parts of a problem.
Wolfgang Kohler, a Gestalt psychologist who was born in 1887 and died
in 1967, used chimpanzees in the study of insight learning. Kohler who was born
in Revel, Estonia and moved to the United States in 1935, did pioneering studies
in the behavior of apes that showed the importance of perceptual organization
and insight in learning.
His groundbreaking experiment involved one of his chimpanzees, Sultan.
Sultan had learned to use a stick to rake in bananas outside of his cage. This
time Kohler placed the banana outside of the reach of just one stick and gave
Sultan two sticks that could be fitted together to make a single pole that was
long enough to reach the banana. After fiddling with the sticks for an hour or
so, Sultan happened to align the sticks and in a flash of sudden inspiration,
fitted the two sticks together and pulled in the banana. Kohler was impressed
by Sultan's rapid "perception of relationships" and used the term insight to
describe it. He noted that such insights are not learned gradually through
reinforced trials. They seemed to occur in a flash when the elements a problem
are set up appropriately.
In another experiment boxes were put in a room with a banana hanging
from the ceiling. The chimps found out that they could stack the boxes on top
of one another to reach the banana without being taught to do it.
It was also found that rats made cognitive maps, which are mental
representations or "pictures" of the elements in a learning situation, of the
mazes that they were going through. Not surprisingly, the rats learned the way
quicker on a route in... [continues]
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