With reference to examples, critically assess and evaluate the cause and impact of suburbanisation on towns and cities (40 marks)
Suburbanisation is the growth of the suburbs and suburban areas on the fringes of cities due to natural increase or the movement of people. It is one of the many causes of the increase in urban sprawl. Suburbanisation occurs in many countries, all at different stages of development. Each case of suburbanisation can have different causes, such as urban push factors, and suburban pull factors. A push factor is something that would make someone want to leave an area, whereas a pull factor is something that is appealing about another area so would make them want to move there. An example of an urban push factor is the congestion and population density of city centres.
The arrows show the movement of people to the suburbs. Families move out from the inner city to the suburbs because: Push
Housing in the inner city was old and crowded, with little or no garden space and drives
| New, modern housing with modern facilities
| In the inner city, there is congestion on the busy roads with lots of pollution
| More open space, and better schools and services
| Fears for family safety as crime rates are higher
| Safer Neighbourhoods
| Few or restricted job opportunities as old factories have shut down or moved to suburbs
| More job opportunities
There are many causes and impacts of suburbanisation on many areas surrounding and in a city. Suburbs are outlying residential districts of towns or cities, as shown in the Burgess Model below. The suburbs are the outmost ring on the model, and are usually home to the more affluent, upper class families.
Businesses move to the edges of cities also because of several push and pull factors. The push factors include; old, cramped factories in the inner city; congestion on the roads and narrow streets which makes it hard for lorries to deliver goods; high rents for land and services, and a shortage of skilled workers. The pull factors include; cheaper and more plentiful land for future
expansion; brand new buildings with better car parking and more advanced technology; skilled workers; and access to new roads, airports and rail networks.
As well as the above push and pull factors, further
Suburbanisation can be caused by decentralisation and deindustrialisation, which are effects of suburbanisation. Decentralisation is the shift of jobs into the service sector, from the Central Business District (CBD) to the suburbs. This occurs due to business trying to make use of the cheaper land prices away from the city centre. Deindustrialisation is the loss of manufacturing jobs in the inner city, and these employees often lack the skills required for jobs in the service sector. An example would be Los Angeles, or London. Advances in technology have allowed people to live on the outskirts of these cities, and even in small market towns such as St Ives, in Cambridgeshire. St Ives is located along a bus route that leads straight to London, meaning it is easier for commuters that live there yet travel to work in London. The advances in technology include the internet which has allowed people to have more freedom over their location as it is easier to work at home. Suburbanisation occurs in many countries, all at different stages of development. In MEDCs such as the UK, the effects of suburbanisation are felt in all areas of a city, such as the inner city, and even surrounding countrysides. Changes to the countryside of an MEDC such as London, England, include an ageing population, through many elderly people retiring to the suburbs for the open spaces and larger amount green areas. Another change to this countryside would be the closure of many services such as a village school, shops and bus services, as they are less likely to be used by newcomers. Demographic changes in MEDCs associated with suburbanisation include an ageing population, rural...
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