Witchcraft as Misogyny

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The society during the 14th-16th century viewed women as unimportant compared to men, which led to the belief that women were witches.

Act of oblivion “Women and Explanations for European Witchcraft Beliefs in the 16th and 17th Century.” (2003)
The journal “Women and Explanations for European Witchcraft Beliefs in the 16th and 17th Century,” debates whether witchcraft was a tradition or part of everyday culture. James Sharpe believed that witchcraft was a part of everyday culture during that period. People targeted others for revenge or said they were a witch because they were an outcast. Anne Laurence argues that Christian and secular prosecution developed common tradition of witchcraft by popularizing a belief neither of Sharpes or Laurences statements were right or wrong. However, their beliefs are coming from biased materials like court records. This journal is good for someone looking for beliefs from both sides.

Held, David “The Great European Witch Hunts” A Historical Perspective (1980) retrieved from www.jstor.org.
“The Great European Witch Hunts: A Historical Perspective: by David Held describes Nachman Ben-Yenudd’s theory on why witch hunts were occurring during the 14th century. Ben-Yenudd said the cause for with hunt was the rapid changes in society, the side effects of chemicals and religion. Held exclaims that the trials during the 14th and 17th century were not a product of that time but rather a characteristic. Held uses information to prove that witch trials were occurring before the 14th century and far after the 17th century. During the 14th century and far after the 17th century. During the 14th century it just started to become more normal. Although, Held doesn’t specifically say what the causes were, he proves that Witon trials have been occurring much longer than the 14th century and far after the 17th century. Therefore, he believes there is different reasons as to why witch hunts were occurring. This article is just an opposing article to Ben-Yehudd’s and doesn’t give answers to why witch hunts were occurring.

Henningsen, Gustav “The Greatest Witch Trial of All: Navarre.” (1609-13) www.tandf.co.uk/journals.
The article “The Greatest Witch Trial of All” by Gustav Henningsen discusses how the Navaree witch-trial was the greatest witch-trial off all having 7,000 cases. Becerra, Vane and Salazar were all college scholars who were judges on whether or not these 7,000 of Henningsen’s people are guilty or not. Several people confessed they pledged their soul to the devil. However, Salazar was not convinced that any of these people were witches because there was no proof or evidence. With no evidence to be shown; all of the cases were dismissed. This is a good article to show how some people weren’t punished because of the lack of evidence.

Hoak, Dale “Witch-Hunting and Women in the Art of the Renaissance” (1973) http://.www.jstor.org.
In the journal “Witch-Hunting and Women in the Art of the Renaissance, Dale Hoak discusses how women were viewed as evil because they were less able to resist temptations. It was thought that women had sexual temptations towards the devil and that women could transform themselves into beasts. These statements were supported by art from the Renaissance period. Witches transform into beasts from Ulrich Molitor, shows a beast transforming and flying away on a stick. Another significant was :Saturn and His Children” by Leroy. This piece shows the Prince of Darkness, Sabbath bound, flying a stallion. Leading a wild charge of naked witches. This journal is good for people who link Renaissance Art and witches and witchcraft.

Innocent VIII: Bull, Summis Desiderants, December 5, 1484. www.fordham.edu/haisall/source/witches/asp.
This source points out that in upper Germany, many people of both sexes and of the Catholic faith are paying no attention to their salvation and giving up their Catholic faith for the devil because men...
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