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2LIVER

Anatomical overview

What is liver?
 

The whole liver together weighs 3-4 pounds.  It is from a light pink to a dark red color.  The liver is located right below the heart. The liver is a very big organ.  The liver and gallbladder are responsible for a number of functions.  One of the  main functions is to help in digestion.   

The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on the right side. The liver has a multitude of important and complex functions, including to manufacture proteins, including albumin (to help maintain the volume of blood) and blood clotting factors; to synthesize, store, and process fats, including fatty acids (used for energy) and cholesterol; to metabolize and store carbohydrates (used as the source for the sugar in blood); to form and secrete bile that contains bile acids to aid in the intestinal absorption of fats and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K; to eliminate, by metabolizing or secreting, the potentially harmful biochemical products produced by the body, such as bilirubin, from the breakdown of old red blood cells and ammonia from the breakdown of proteins; and to detoxify, by metabolizing and/or secreting, drugs, alcohol, and environmental toxins.

PATIENT PROCEDURE
1.Ablation: Removal or excision. Ablation is usually carried out surgically. For example, surgical removal of the thyroid gland (a total thyroidectomy) is ablation of the thyroid.

2.Antibody: An immunoglobulin, a specialized immune protein, produced because of the introduction of an antigen into the body, and which possesses the remarkable ability to combine with the very antigen that triggered its production.

3.Antinuclear antibody: An unusual antibody that is directed against structures within the nucleus of the cell. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are found in patients whose immune system is predisposed to causeinflammation against their own body tissues. Antibodies that are directed against one's own tissues are referred to as autoantibodies. The propensity for the immune system to work against its own body is referred to asautoimmunity. ANAs indicate the possible presence of autoimmunity.

4.Biopsy: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for cancer cells or other abnormalities.

5.CAT scan: Computerized axial tomography scan. CAT scanning is a painless X-ray test in which a computer generates cross-section views of a patient's anatomy. It can identify normal and abnormal structures, and it can be used to guide procedures. Iodine-containing contrast material is sometimes used in CAT scanning. A patient who is allergic to iodine or contrast materials and is scheduled to have a CAT scan should notify the physician and the radiology staff about the allergy. Also known as CT scan.

6.Chemoembolization: Chemoembolization is a procedure in which anticancer drugs are administered directly into the tumor and the blood supply to the tumor is then blocked by injection of an embolizing- or blocking agent. This permits a much higher concentration of drugs to be in contact with the tumor for a longer period of time, while depriving the tumor of oxygen and nutrients. The procedure is used to treat cancer originating in the liver (primary liver cancer) as well as cancer that has metastasized (spread) to the liver from another area.

7.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the gallbladder. This procedure may be done by laparoscopy or by open surgery.

8.Cholescintigraphy: A diagnostic test in which a two-dimensional picture of a radiation source in the biliary system is obtained through the use of radioisotopes. The test is used to examine the biliary system and diagnose obstruction of the bile ducts (for example, by a gallstone or a tumor), disease of the gallbladder, and bile leaks.

9.Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: AbbreviatedERCP. A procedure done to diagnose and treat problems in the bile ducts for...
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