Wind turbines are used to generate electricity from the kinetic power of the wind. Historically, they were more frequently used as mechanical device. Nowadays, it is used as a source of electricity.
In this paper, the researchers will introduce two kinds of wind turbines: onshore wind turbine (turbines located on land) and the offshore wind turbines (turbines located on water). The problem laid on this research is to have knowledge of the effects of the turbines to us. Before that, the researchers will introduce first the background of the study. The researchers will also differentiate the two kinds and which is more efficient.
Wind turbines play a huge role to the society. So let us further scrutinize about wind turbines and what effects do they have in our society.
Onshore Wind Turbines
1.1 History of the Onshore Wind Turbines
Wind turbines came from a long way before it became the way it is now. It was used already by Persia (present-day Iran) around 200 B.C. But it was not used as the way it is used nowadays; they were used grind grain or draw up water. Wind turbines are first used as a source of electricity since 1887 of July by Scottish academic James Blyth just to light his holiday home.1 1.2 Definition of the Onshore Wind Turbines
Land- based or onshore wind turbines are turbines that generate electricity through the use of wind which are located on land. Historically they were more frequently used as a mechanical device to turn machinery. There are two main kinds of wind generators, those with a vertical axis, and those with a horizontal axis.2 Wind turbines can be used to generate large amounts of electricity in wind farms both onshore and offshore. 1.3 Onshore Turbine Installations
Onshore turbine installations in hilly or mountainous regions tend to be on ridgelines generally three kilometres or more inland from the nearest shoreline. This is done to exploit the topographic acceleration as the wind accelerates over a ridge. The additional wind speeds gained in this way can increase energy produced because more wind goes through the turbines. The exact position of each turbine matters, because a difference of 30m could potentially double output. This careful placement is referred to as 'micro-siting'.3 1.4 Advantages
Wind turbines are pollution free;
The energy they generate is renewable. This means that as the winds blow there is power to turn the blades of the rotor; Using wind energy means that less fossil fuel (coal and oil) needs to be burned to make electricity. Burning fossil fuel pollutes the atmosphere and adds greenhouse gases to it. This pollution is a cause of global warming. 1.5 Disadvantages
Some people don't like the look of the turbines. They say that they spoil the look of the natural environment; Wind turbines make some noise.
Turbines kill birds that fly into them. However collisions are rare and there are reports from Denmark saying that some falcons had built nests on the top of turbine towers. To protect birds however, it is important that wind farms be built away from bird sanctuaries and from the pathways of migratory birds. (Migratory birds are those that fly from cold places in winter to warmer parts of the world.)
Offshore Wind Turbines
2.1 History of Floating Wind Turbine or Offshore Wind Turbines
In 1991, the first ever commercial offshore wind farm was installed in Vindeby, Denmark.4 It was ground-breaking at the time and heavily influenced offshore wind development. Due to Vindeby and the other projects that followed, the Danish Energy Authority published its Offshore Wind Turbine Action Plan in 1997.5 The action plan was then updated in 2007 to reassess selected sites and by describing high wind areas where up to 4,600 MW can be constructed, more than enough to supply Denmark’s entire domestic electricity consumption.6 This all contributed to making offshore wind a national agenda that...
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