22 April 2012
Tech Project: A Proposal to a Wind and Solar Energy NGO in Turkey
Background. For many reasons, there has been an influx of demand for renewable energy production. All this demand rises from the initial issue that, at the moment, the world essentially runs on finite resources.Much of the world’s energy is currently produced and consumed in ways that are unsustainable if current technology and practices were left unchanged or even ifthe overall quantities of energy sources were to increase substantially. In 2008, roughly 5.8 billion tons of hard coal and 953 million tons of brown coal of the reported 960 billion tons of coal remaining in proved recoverable reserves were consumed worldwide. Crude oil, based on World Energy Council Member Committees and supplementarysources, stands with 1239 billion barrels remaining after 2008. And at the 2008 consumption rate, only roughly 50-60 years remain for the use of the 185.5 trillion cubic meters in globalgas reserves. All these numbers were collected from Kotcioğlu’s article, Clean and Sustainable Energy Policies in Turkey, but in my eyes, the disagreement over when we reach peak energy or finally run dry of nonrenewable sources only represents an instrument that measures an ultimately impending energy crisis. I think it is safe to say that my belief towards these projections can be attributed to my Environment and Society course professors at the University of Otago. They explained that the frivolous natures of these reports are generally conceived from unreliable national data obscured in the interest of political and financial benefits. And for this reason, the same figures and projections are very important to Turkey given that they are heavily dependent on foreign finite sources for their energy supply. This is clear in Uslu’s report, which detailed Turkeys consumption of nonrenewable natural resources. It stated that between 1994 and 2002 Turkey imported 89.3%, 96.6%, and 82% of their total oil, natural gas, and coal consumption, respectively (114). These numbers become even more significant to the discussion of renewable energy when the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) calculated that natural gas, oil, and coal were the largest contributors of the electricity supply in 2008 at 81% of their 161 billion kilowatt-hours (TWh). In Soyhan review of Sustainable energy production and consumption in Turkey, he mentions that over half of Turkey’s natural gas consumption is used for electric power production (1353). That is to say, that over 13.5 billion m[pic] of natural gas was dedicated towards generating electricity given Turkey consumed 27.3 billion m[pic] in 2005 (Balat 112). In particular, domestic lignite coal generates 22% of electricity making it Turkeys most consumed domestic energy source (Ozturk et al. 328). That would leave 59% of electricity production dependent on foreign fossil fuels while domestic coal lasts. Ozturk et al. and many other scholars studying Turkeys energy, claim that the demand for energy, particularly electricity, is growing rapidly (329). Reasons like this and the rising costs that will shortly follow are why the scholars, scientist and other intellectuals of our time are urging an increase of renewable resource development for more electricity production (Uslu, T). Turkey, home to several geographical advantages, is a highly favorable location to harness solar and wind energy for the generation of electricity (Toklu, E. et al. 1187). Hydropower has contributed a large amount of energy to Turkey’s electricity supply but future projects are subjected to intense environmental sustainability and human rights criteria’s due to their potential of causing severe negative social and environmental impacts (Tükenmez, Mine, and Erhan Demireli 8). As a Sun Belt nation with 2,640 hours of sunshine Turkey receives a yearly average solar radiation of 1,311 kW h/m[pic]...