WiMAX technology is a worldwide wireless networking standard that addresses interoperability across IEEE 802.16* standard-based products. WiMAX technology offers greater range and bandwidth than the wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) family of standards and provides a wireless alternative to wired backhaul and last mile deployments that use Data over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) cable modems, Digital Subscriber Line technologies (xDSL), T-carrier and E-carrier (T-x/E-x) systems, and Optical Carrier Level (OC-x) technologies.
WiMAX technology can reach a theoretical 30-mile coverage radius and achieve data rates up to 75 Mbps, although at extremely long range, throughput is closer to the 1.5 Mbps performance of typical broadband services (equivalent to a T-1 line), so service providers are likely to provision rates based on a tiered pricing approach, similar to that used for wired broadband services.
The original WiMAX system was designed to operate at 10-66 GHz and it had to change to offer broadband wireless access (BWA) in the 2-11 GHz frequency range. To do this, the WiMAX standard includes variants (profiles) that use different combinations of radio channel types (single carrier –vs- multicarrier), modulation types, channel coding types to provide fixed, nomadic or portable services.
WiMAX can provide multiple types of services to the same user with different Quality of Service (QoS) levels. For example, it is possible to install a single WiMAX transceiver in an office building and provide real time telephone services and best effort Internet browsing services on the same WiMAX connection. To do this, WiMAX was designed to mix contention based (competitive access) and contention free (polled access) to provide services which have different quality of service (QoS) levels.
WiMAX protocols are designed to allow for point to point (PTP), point to multipoint (PMP) and mesh networks. Operators can use the mesh configuration to allow it to link base stations without the need to install or lease interconnecting communication lines. Some of the services WiMAX operators can provide include leased line, residential broadband, commercial broadband and digital television (IPTV) services.
WiMAX can use radio channel bandwidths that can vary from 1.25 MHz to 28 MHz and data transmission rates can exceed 155 Mbps. The types of data connections on WiMAX radio channels include basic (physical connection), primary (device control), secondary (configuration) and, transport (user data).
WIMAX systems extend the range of WIMAX systems through the use of directional antennas
WiMAX Standard and Deployment
IEEE 802.16e is a mobile wireless access technology, meaning that it is designed to serve as a wireless DSL replacement technology, to compete with the incumbent DSL or broadband cable providers or to provide basic voice and broadband access in underserved areas where no other access technology exists. In most areas in Nigeria, where running copper wire or cable does not make economic sense, this technology has found an important role to play. 802.16e is also a viable solution for wireless backhaul for WiFi access points or potentially for cellular networks, in particular if licensed spectrum is used. Finally, in certain configurations, WiMAX mobile can be used to provide much higher data rates and therefore be used as a T-1 replacement option for high-value corporate subscribers.
Typically, the CPE (consumer premise equipment) consists of an outdoor unit (antenna, etc.) and an indoor modem, meaning that a technician is required to get a commercial or residential subscriber connected to the network. In certain instances, a self-installable indoor unit can be used, in particular when the subscriber is in relatively close proximity to the transmitting base station. As it does, the mobile wireless technology would introduce a high degree of nomadic...