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Le Corbusier forays
into urbanism

CT.LAKSHMANAN B.Arch.,M.C.P.
SRM SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE

Le Corbusier

originally Charles-Edouard
Jeanneret
1887-1965
founding father of the
modernist movement

CIAM 1928
( Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne ). At the
request of a rich patron of architects, Madame Hélène de
Mandrot(1867–1948), in 1928, Sigfried Giedion
organized a meeting of leading Modern architects
including Berlage , Le Corbusier , El Lissitzky , Rietveld , and Stam
The organization was hugely influential. It was not only
engaged in formalizing the architectural principles of the
Modern Movement, but also saw architecture as an
economic and political tool that could be used to improve
the world through the design of buildings and through
urban planning.



It affirmed that town planning is the organizations of
functions of collective life – this applies to both rural and urban settlements



four functions of any settlement







dwelling
work
recreation
transportation, which connects the first three with one another.

Le Corbusier organized in CIAM, Assembly of
Constructors for an Architectural Renewal (ASCORAL)
which systematically studied the problems of
construction, architecture and city planning.



It resulted in the publication of ‘The Three Human
Establishments’. The examination of working conditions
in a mechanistic society led to the recognition of the
utility and necessity of three unit establishments
indispensable for human activity :



The Farming unit – the cooperative village : a unit for
agricultural production
The linear industrial city
The radio concentric city - same as Radiant city (Ville
Radieuse) for the exchange of goods and services.




Background of ville contemporaine :
philosophy of Le corbusier


No matter how open and green, cities should be frankly urban, urban surroundings are to be definitely contrasting with rural surroundings



Densities are in themselves not a problem. Congestion and
slum conditions in the cities are due to excessive coverage, persistence of old street patterns and unrestricted land
speculation



Slums exist because of the failure to provide the proper
surrounding for high density living



He protests against strict functionalism : “Human creations that survive are those which produce emotions, and not those which are only useful”

LA VILLE CONTEMPORAINE
(CONCENTRIC CITY) 1922
City for 3 million people was proposed by
Le corbusier in 1922, which was based on
four principles :


Decongestion of the centre of the cities



Augmentation of the density



Enlargement of the means of circulation



Increase in the number of parks and open
spaces

THREE ZONES

CENTRAL CITY

PROTECTED GREEN BELT

FACTORIES & SATELLITE
TOWNS
CENTRAL CITY

Rectangle containing two cross
axial highways


At its heart was a six-level
transport interchange – centre
for motor, rail lines (underground
and main-line railways) and roof
of which is air-field



24 cruciform skyscrapers - 60
storeyed office building with
density 1200 ppa and covers 5%
of the ground



Surrounding skyscrapers was
apartment district – 8 storey
buildings arranged in zigzag
rows with broad openspaces
with density of 120 ppa



The buildings in the central area were raised
on stilts (pilotis) so as to leave panoramas
of unbroken greenery at ground level



The general impression was more of a city
in a park than of a parkland in the city



The city espoused space, speed, mass
production and efficient organisation, but
also offered combination of natural and
urban environments

criticism




Class based conception of life – different
classes being separately housed
Doubts were expressed about the scale and
degree of centralisation

PLAN VOISIN 1925




Le corbusier reworked
certain...
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