Wildlife and Conservation

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Wildlife conservation
The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that is critically endangered; three subspecies of tiger are already extinct.

Wildlife conservation is the preservation, protection, or restoration of wildlife and their environment, especially in relation to endangered and vulnerable species. All living non-domesticated animals, even if bred, hatched or born in captivity, are considered wild animals. Wildlife represents all the non-cultivated and non-domesticated animals living in their natural habitats. Our world has many unique and rare animals, birds and reptiles. However the pressure of growing population in different parts of the world has led to the increasing need of using land for human habitations and agriculture. This has led to the reduced habitat of many wild animals. Contents

1 Major threats to wildlife
2 The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation
3 Government involvement
4 Non-government involvement
5 Active non-government organizations
6 References

[edit] Major threats to wildlife
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Major threats to wildlife can be categorized as below:

Habitat loss: Fewer natural wildlife habitat areas remain each year. Moreover, the habitat that remains has often been degraded to bear little resemblance to the natural wild areas which existed in the past. Climate change: Because many types of plants and animals have specific habitat requirements, climate change could cause disastrous loss of wildlife species. A slight drop or rise in average rainfall will translate into large seasonal changes. Hibernating mammals, reptiles, amphibians and insects are harmed and disturbed. Plants and wildlife are sensitive to moisture change so, they will be harmed by any change in the moisture level. Pesticides and toxic chemicals: Pesticides are deliberately spread to make the environment toxic to certain plants, insects, and rodents, so it should not be surprising that other plants and wildlife are deliberately harmed at the same time. In addition many chemical pollutants are toxic to wildlife, such as PCBs, mercury, petroleum by-products, solvents, antifreeze, etc. Hunting and poaching: Unregulated hunting and poaching causes a major threat to wildlife. Along with this, mismanagement of forest department and forest guards triggers this problem. Natural phenomena: Floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, lightning, forest fires Pollution: Pollutants released into the environment are ingested by a wide variety of organisms. Over-exploitation of resources: Exploitation of wild populations for food has resulted in population crashes (over-fishing, for example). Accidental deaths: Car hits, window collisions (birds), collisions with ships (whales).

[edit] The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation

The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation is considered to be one the most successful conservation model in world.[citation needed] It has its origins in 19th century conservation movements, the near extinction of several species of wildlife (including the American Bison) and the rise of sportsmen with the middle class.[1][2] Beginning in the 1860s sportsmen began to organize and advocate for the preservation of wilderness areas and wildlife. The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation rests on two basic principles – fish and wildlife are for the non-commercial use of citizens, and should be managed such that they are available at optimum population levels forever. These core principles are elaborated...
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