Relationship with Plaque:
* Calculus is formed by the deposition of calcium and phosphate salts in bacterial plaque. These salts are present in salivary and crevicular fluids.
* Plaque mineralization begins within 24-72 hours and takes an average of 12 days to mature.
* Calculus contributes to the disease by providing foci for plaque accumulation. It is not the causative or etiologic factor, plaque is.
* Calculus is porous and can act as a reservoir or nidus of bacteria and endotoxin related to the disease process.
* Calculus formation has been observed in germ-free laboratory animals but is far more abundant in similar germ-infected laboratory animals. The role of the bacteria in relation to calculus formation is not completely understood.
Plaque is a soft, sticky accumulation that occurs on dental and various other intra-oral surfaces. It is the host to a complex micro-system of micro-organisms whose pathogenicity and virulence cause inflammatory diseases of the gingival & periodontal tissues. Plaque can be removed from tooth surfaces by direct brushing. It is possible to have a mouth with plaque but no calculus
Calculus is formed by the deposition of mineral salts in plaque. It is hard and firmly adherent to the tooth surfaces on which it forms and it cannot be removed by brushing. Calculus acts...
The plague that wiped out one-third of the population of Western Europe in the 14th century was nondiscriminatory. Many reasons contributed to the large number of deaths. The plague was a turning point in Europe socially, economically and culturally. There were several ways in which the plague affected Europe.
One of the reasons the plague affected Europe was socially. This was the by-product of a single flea bite. Erasmus of Rotterdam states, “The plague and sickness in England is due to the filth in the streets and the sputum and dogs’ urine…” which could be close to the correct answer because the fleas infected the rats and then the rats infected other animals which then infected the humans. Giovan Flippo a physician seemed to think people in higher positions would try to take power from some and frighten others. With so many deaths, Europe was socially devastated.
Economy was another reason why the plague affected the people of Europe. “Since the rich fled, death was principally directed towards the poor…” explains French author Nicolas Versoris. This means the poor were left to die and infect more of the poor people while the rich were able to flee. According to M. Bertrand, physician at Marseilles argues “The plague must be considered a particular chastisement exercised by an angry god…”. Meaning that it was god’s way of showing his anger by taking the lives of people. Again, the plague took the lives from all walks...
Art around the world serves all different purposes, not all of these seem traditional to the people of western civilization. For example the art of many african tribes and cultures is very different from the classic styles of the european tradition. Art from these areas usually serves a larger purpose to the people. Either representing religious figures or the leaders of the tribe. The subjects of these works of art are often crafted in an idealized manner as to show their greatness. One great representation of African art is the plaques of the city state Benin. In south east africa this city state was well known for its royal art as well as its unique way of creating metal works. One specific work of art from the region is the Plaque of the Warrior Chief Flanked by Warriors and Attendants, which was a version of political propaganda. Made using the process of wax casting, which involves creating molds and pouring extremely hot melted metal into the moulds. This particular plaque told the story of a divine and powerful king, shown with many symbols that conveyed this message to the people.
Located in western Africa, centralized in modern day Nigeria, existed the Benin Empire. A warlike state that legend says was able to summon two hundred thousand troops in a matter of days. A civilization like this requires an extremely powerful...
I. My speech today is to inform you guys on psoriasis.
II. I have 2 sources to support my information.
A. WebMD (August, 2011)
B. Medical News Today (March, 2009)
III. I will discuss three main points with you all today.
A. What is psoriasis?
1. How many types are there?
2. What are the different types of psoriasis?
B. What causes psoriasis?
1. How do you get psoriasis?
2. How can you prevent psoriasis?
C. What are the symptoms of psoriasis?
1. How can you treat it?
2. Is psoriasis contagious?
I. Psoriasis is a dry, scaly skin disorder.
A. There are seven types of psoriasis.
B. They differ in many ways.
1. Plaque psoriasis is the most common, it usually lasts for years.
2. Guttate psoriasis starts in early childhood, they are thinner than plaque.
3. Inverse psoriasis don’t have scales like all the others.
4. Pustular psoriasis is uncommon and usually appears in adults.
5. Erythrodermic psoriasis is least common, but it is very serious.
6. Nail psoriasis occurs in up to half of those who have psoriasis.
7. Psoriatic arthritis is very common in those who have been suffering with
psoriasis for at least ten years.
II. It is usually caused by the immune system being mistakenly triggered and causing skin cells to be
A. There is a genetic link and it tends to run in families.
B. There a many ways to keep psoriasis from...
...Responses to the Black Plaque
Gabriele d’Mussis initially explains the causes of the plaque to be “as though arrows were raining down from heaven to strike down and crush the Tartars’ arrogance”. Gabrielle’s understanding of the causes of the plaque changes as he traces its movements from East to West. He explained how when they would throw the decease along the sea it would eventually poison the water supply. When one person becomes ill, it was only a matter of time the next person. Everyone who had come to the East was bound to become sick with this plaque and unfortunately die, just like everyone else who had been. The reader sees how his understandings of how this all came about changed as some would escape by boat to the West. He says how some people would go to Genoa and others to Venice and some other primarily Christian areas. It was almost like there was a demon inside those who had escaped. The plaque started to spread even more. Previously Gabrielle d’Mussis described this as a strike down from heaven that has now turned into devil inside. This plaque was unstoppable. It got to a point where families would start making arrangements of their burials before they even were affected. Cemeteries were too
full along with other places where one can have a burial was getting scarce. There just wasn’t enough room anymore! In the end, it became common that whole families and...
...What was the impact of the 14th century black plaque on Europe?
The Black Plague spread from Asia into Europe in the mid fourteenth century and killed thousands along its path of destruction. Trade, war, and other contacts between Europe and Asia caused the diseases to spread. The plague impacted Europe in more ways than just killing about a third of the population. The plague impacted Europe's social fabric in that it tore people apart in the fight to survive. The church lost the trust of many and Europe's economy also suffered greatly during the plague. These factors sum up a Europe that was devastated by more than death.
Through the years Europe built up a relation with the Far East. Through this relation goods were carried from one culture to the other. Although this relationship may have seemed beneficial, it brought devastating affects on Europe. Although difficult to reliably tracing the exact start of the plague to an exact source, The disease was carried by fleas on black rats. Rats carried flees to spread the Black plague across Europe. For example, an infected flea infects a human whom another flea bites and becomes infected, and so on. Once the mutated plague became airborne, the plague spread even more rapidly.
The plague hurt Europe's society considerably. As people died by the thousands, fear of the Plague drove many to abandon their family. Children were often left to their own devices, as their parents feared giving them the Plague or...
Atherosclerotic plaques that result in acute coronary syndromes often occur at sites
with coronary artery stenosis. The risk factors for developing these plaques and events
at this point poorly understood.
In a prospective study, 697 patients with acute coronary syndromes underwent
three-vessel coronary angiography and gray-scale and radiofrequency intravascular
ultrasonographic imaging after percutaneous coronary intervention. Subsequent
major adverse cardiovascular events (death from cardiac causes, cardiac arrest,
myocardial infarction, or rehospitalization due to unstable or progressive angina)
were adjudicated to be related to either originally treated (culprit) lesions or untreated
(nonculprit) lesions. The median follow-up period was 3.4 years.
The 3-year cumulative rate of major adverse cardiovascular events was 20.4%. Events
were adjudicated to be related to culprit lesions in 12.9% of patients and to nonculprit
lesions in 11.6%. Most nonculprit lesions responsible for follow-up events were
angiographically mild at baseline diameter stenosis 20.6%
However, on multivariate analysis, nonculprit lesions associated with recurrent
events were more likely than those not associated with recurrent events to be characterized
by a plaque burden of 70% or greater or a minimal luminal area of 4.0 mm or less
or to be classified on the basis of radiofrequency intravascular...