"Bipolarity" and "multipolarity"
Bipolarity, an equal balance of military power, and nuclear weapons—these are the key elements for the Long Peace.(Bipolar systems are more stable than multipolar systems.) -The "Europe Without Nuclear Weapons" Scenario, The "Current Ownership" Scenario, The "Nuclear Proliferation" Scenario Criticism for optimistic views
(1) A non-nuclear Europe would remain peaceful because Europeans recognize that even a conventional war would be horrific. "obsolescence of war" theory, * How about the World War 1? People should have learnt from that disaster (2) Theory of economic liberalism, Stability flows not from military power but from the creation of a liberal economic order. - Survival in an anarchic international political system is the highest goal a state can have. (3) "Peace-loving democracies" theory believing that liberal democracies simply do not fight one another. * Democracy doesn’t guarantee the peace eg. Common threats, a small number of cases What to do?
(1) the United States should encourage the limited and carefully managed proliferation of nuclear weapons in Europe (2) Britain and the United States, as well as the Continental states, will have to counter any emerging aggressor actively and efficiently. (3) should keep Hypernationalism at bay, especially in Eastern Europe Strengths| Weaknesses|
1. well- structured from his opinions to suggestions to deter war in the era of post- cold war. 2. Well criticized post –cold war idealism by underpinning examples in history. 3. Recap that Inequality of power between countries and Hypernationalism would be likely to break war in Europe continent. 4. Since it’s written in 1990, I think it truly well predicted what would be going on after the cold war, very logical and sound in his point of view.------------------------------------------------------Q. If uncertainty promotes caution and...