Why We Sleep

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WHY WE SLEEP
The Functions of Sleep in Humans and Other Mammals

J.A. Horne

Published by Oxford University Press
1988

Contents

CHAPTER 1
Introduction

1.1Early Sleep Theories
1.2Daily Sleep and Wakefulness
1.3Measuring Sleep
References

CHAPTER 2
Sleep Deprivation

2.1Problems with Animal Experiments
2.2Recent Animal Experiments
2.3Some Problems with Human Experiments
2.41896 - The First Real Sleep Deprivation Experiment on Humans 2.5The Longest Study - 264 hours Without Sleep
2.6Abnormal Behaviour
2.7The Longest Study With More than One Subject - 205 hours 2.8The Walter Reed Experiments
2.9Motivation and Cerebral Impairment
2.10Tasks Sensitive to Sleep Deprivation
2.11Higher Levels of Cerebral Function
2.12Spare Cerebral Capacity
2.13Performance Measures Are Too Limited
2.14Two Types of Sleepiness ?
2.15Short-Term Sleep Restriction
2.16Age and Sleep Deprivation
2.17Does Repeated Deprivation Produce Immunity to Sleep Loss ? 2.18Can Sleep Deprivation Effects be Sped Up or Slowed Down ? 2.19Do Long and Short Sleepers Differ in Their Recovery Sleep ? 2.20Epilepsy

2.21Other Effects On the Human EEG
References

CHAPTER 3
Physiological Effects of Sleep Deprivation

3.1The First Major Physiological Study - Kleitman, 1923
3.2The Next Fifty Years
3.3Body Restitution and Sleep
3.4Effects on Exercise
3.5The Control of Body Temperature (Thermoregulation)
3.6Other Aspects of Homeostasis
3.7Update on Hormone Changes
3.8The Immune System
3.9Conclusions about Sleep Deprivation in Humans
References

CHAPTER 4
Body Restitution and Sleep

4.1Tissue Restitution : Protein Turnover and Cell Division
4.2Factors Influencing Protein Turnover and the Cell Cycle
4.3Feeding and Protein Turnover
4.4Mitosis, Sleep and Physical Activity
4.5Metabolism During Sleep and the Energy Cost of Restitution 4.6Cell Energy Charge and Sleep
4.7Human Growth Hormone Release During Sleep
4.8Other Hormonal Changes During Human Sleep
4.9Thyroid Activity and Sleep - Body Versus Brain Restitution 4.10The Effects of Exercise on Sleep - Background
4.11Is Body Heating the Key ?
4.12Conclusions
References

CHAPTER 5
Waking Awareness, Subsequent Sleep, and Cerebral "Restitution"

5.1Background
5.2Influences of Wakefulness on Subsequent Sleep
5.3SWS Changes over the Night, and "Models" of SWS
5.4Brain Work During Wakefulness
5.5Increased Awareness during Wakefulness and Subsequent Sleep 5.6Reduced Sensory Stimulation during Wakefulness
5.7SWS Reductions in Psychiatric Disorders
5.8SWS and Ageing
5.9SWS Deprivation
5.10Brain and Behaviour During SWS
5.11Cerebral Restitution During SWS ?
5.12Sleep "Substances" and Immunoen hancement
5.13Conclusions
References

CHAPTER 6
Core and Optional Sleep

6.1Introduction
6.2Natural Long and Short Sleepers amongst Humans
6.3Can the Normal Sleeper Adapt to Less Sleep ?
6.4Sleep Extension
6.5Are We Chronically Sleep Deprived ?
6.6The Circadian Timing of Sleep
6.7Abnormalities in the Timing of Sleep
6.8Insomnia
6.9Stage 2 Sleep
6.10Conclusions
References

CHAPTER 7
Sleep in Other Mammals

7.1Dolphins
7.2Laboratory vs. Natural Habitats
7.3Statistical Analyses of Mammalian Sleep
7.4Sleep - the Immobiliser and Energy Conserver for Small Mammals 7.5More Energy saving if Sleep develops into a Torpor
7.6Night versus Day Sleeping Mammals
7.7Food, Feeding Behaviour and Cerebral Development
7.8Encephalisation
7.9Conclusions so Far
7.10Infancy
References

CHAPTER 8
REM Sleep

8.1Perspectives on Dreaming
8.2Memory, Homeostatic, Sentinel, and Motivational Theories 8.3Abundance of REM Sleep in Early Life - The Ontogenetic Hypothesis 8.4Sleep After Increased Learning
8.5REM Sleep Deprivation in Animals - Background
8.6REM Sleep Deprivation, Learning and Drive Behaviour
8.7REM Sleep Deprivation in Humans
8.8Brain Protein Synthesis and Related...
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