Why the Industrial Revolution Begun
England had experienced all of the forerunners of industrialization in the previous century: an agricultural revolution, cottage industry, and an expanded commercial revolution. These developments had built surplus capital which allowed them to progress. England also had an abundance of resources to kick-start their revolution. Their shortage of wood as a source of energy led them to search for other alternatives which lead them to coal. England’s geography provided them with coal which was three times more efficient than wood as a power source. The industrial revolution was also aided by the invention of the crude steam engine which allowed them to obtain coal from deep beneath the ground. England also had raw materials such as wool and also used cotton from overseas markets for their textile industry. The textile factories also received more workers due to the increase in labour force and became more efficient through the invention such as the flying shuttle. The industrial revolution was also aided by the growth in the labour force. The peasants who worked on agricultural farmlands were left jobless after the enclosure system was enforced. They then had to find work in factories. England’s population also rapidly grew in the 18th century which provided a labour force for the industry. England had long, irregular shorelines with many rivers and natural harbours. This allowed them to build ports and allow for overseas trading. This trade was a vital source of funding for the Industrial revolution. The English had one of the most powerful navies as they spent much of their revenue on them. In turn, this protected and encouraged private traders to come from all over the world. Their trading extended to all over the world, obtaining products such as tobacco from North America, spices from India and tea from China. England’s use of slaves from Africa were also exploited and used for maximum profit. Industrialisation started due...
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