According to Piaget, around age 11 young people enter the formal operations stage in which they develop the capacity for abstract, systematic, scientific thinking. A characteristic of formal operational thinking = hypothetic-deductive reasoning. When faced with a problem they start with a hypothesis or prediction about variables that might affect the outcome, from which they deduce logical, testable inferences. Then they systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world A second characteristic of Piaget’s formal operational thought is propositional thought – the ability to evaluate the logic of propositions (verbal statements) without referring to real life situations Consequences of Adolescent Cognitive Development
Cognitive development leads to distorted images of the relationship between the self and others. Imaginary audience – belief that they are the focus of everyone else’s attention and concern. As a result they become extremely self-conscious A second cognitive distortion is the personal fable – they are sure others are observing and thinking about them they develop an inflated opinion of their own importance – a feeling that they are special and unique EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESENCE
Erikson suggested that identity is the major personality achievement of adolescents – it involves defining who one is, what one values and the direction one chooses to pursue in life. Erikson called the psychological conflict of adolescence Identity versus Role Confusion Research has identified 4 identity statuses:
Identity Achievement – commitment to values, beliefs, and goals following a period of exploration Identity Moratorium – exploration without committing
Identity Foreclosure – commitment in the absence of exploration Identity Diffusion – an apathetic state characterized by lack of both exploration and commitment Peer pressure is great during...