Why Did the Railroad Network Grow so Rapidly After the Civil War? What Consequences Did This Have for the Country's Economic Development?

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s): 106
  • Published: March 15, 2011
Read full document
Text Preview
Adults are motivated entirely different in the way they learn. Adults are motivated to learn for various reasons such as professional development, potential advancement at work or simply continuing to improve ones lives, as one gets older. However, it is but practical to consider the ideas on how adults are motivated to learn, what principles of learning works, so that adult educators could likewise respond appropriately. The participatory worldview that author Lyle Yorks (2005) describes draws heavily on the theory and practice in adult learning and action research. This creates a kind of social space in organization that is important in the facilitation of a practice-based example. Making it participative can always facilitate learning.

Andragogy is defined as the art and science of helping adults learn. The term can also mean an alternative to pedagogy or what is known as learner-focused education for everyone. The model of andragogy consists of five assumptions, which must be considered and addressed, in formal learning. These are (1) an independent self-concept and who can direct his or her own learning, (2) has accumulated a reservoir of life experiences that is a rich resource for learning, (3) has learning needs closely related to changing social roles, and (5) is motivated to learn by internal rather than external factors (Merriam, 2001, p. 5). Developments in technology and the introduction of computers into the learning environment have changed the manner of learning inside the classroom. Traditionally, lessons are delivered using teacher-centered strategies. However, as technology-driven initiatives are introduced, there is a gradual shift into employing student-centered learning strategies. Constructivist theorists believe that these are essential to student-centered learning environment. a) centrality of the learner in defining meaning, (b) importance of situated, authentic contexts, and (c) negotiation and interpretation of personal beliefs and multiple perspectives, (d) importance of prior learner experiences in meaning construction, and (e) use of technology to scaffold higher mental processes (Land & Hannafin, 2000, pp.11-12). Adult educators must aim at identifying the challenges that working students face while undertaking continuing education. This is important particularly to educators that design learning modules for distance education. Adult educators must also realize the value of technology-driven education. Almost all the researches reviewed would agree that computer-based instructions improved the performance of the students, improved levels of reasoning and problem solving, improved students’ attitudes toward learning and developed more confidence. The teachers on the other hand have improved teaching strategies and practices. Using information technology to support the lessons would encourage student-centered learning. The student is the center of the learning environment. Their needs, opinions, background were considered and integrated into the learning environment. Student-centered learning derives its foundations from constructivist learning theories and transformational experiential learning models. Essential to student-centered approaches is student ownership of their goals and activities. Since adult learners are able to make decisions concerning their learning needs and goals, the work becomes more meaningful and “encourages depth of understanding and an intrinsic motivational orientation” (Pedersen & Williams, 2004, p. 283-306). According to Judith Calder, there will be problems when one uses the social survey research techniques since it uses pre-arranged categories in organizing responses, which can be limiting on the range of experiences that are recorded (Calder, 1993, p. 12). Learning theory is useful in understanding adult learning and how adult educators must fulfill their role as facilitator of adult learning. The theory provides an...
tracking img