Why did Mussolini introduce the racial laws in 1938?
* Change of policy seen as a reflection of Mussolini’s subversion to Hitler: Mussolini chose to try and imitate Hitler, they were allied since the axis alliance in 1936, Mussolini was strongly influenced by him and as the founder of fascism wanted to be ahead of Hitler and keep up with him in terms of foreign and domestic policies, Mussolini wanted to impress countries of eastern Europe with anti-Semitism credentials to counter the attraction of them from Hitler * International trends: racism began after the conquest of Abyssinia- civilising natives, felt they were superior to Italians, attack of Abyssinia and procolamation of an empire encouraged development of racism to justify and buttress imperial control * Radicalisation happening in domestic policies such as reform of customs * Part of ideology: Italians superior to other races, fascists invited Italians to see themselves as having inherited the virtues of the roman race, Fascists invited Italians to believe there was something uniquely superior about them that allowed them to rule other people * Pressure from dominant fascists such as farinacci who was very anti-Semitic
* Control press media, culture
* Control high culture in art, architecture, literature and classical music * Coordinate the lives of ordinary people (spots/ festivals/ mass entertainment) * Control national memory through history text books etc
* 1923 law made sure that Prefects, who were usually Fascist, made sure that papers contained suitable content. Hostile Journalists could be arrested. * Popular journalists were given Government grants.
* State controlled what papers did and did not say – for example, reporting crime, disasters and unemployment was forbidden. * But Fascist party papers never had more than 10% of the overall circulation. * Catholic...