The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, represents numeric values using two symbols, 0 and 1. More specifically, the usual base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Because of its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates, the binary system is used internally by almost all modern computers.

Why Computers Use Binary

Binary numbers – seen as strings of 0's and 1's – are often associated with computers. But why is this? Why can't computers just use base 10 instead of converting to and from binary? Isn't it more efficient to use a higher base, since binary (base 2) representation uses up more "spaces"?

I was recently asked this question by someone who knows a good deal about computers. But this question is also often asked by people who aren't so tech-savvy. Either way, the answer is quite simple.

A modern-day "digital" computer, as opposed to an older "analog" computer, operates on the principle of two possible states of something – "on" and "off". This directly corresponds to there either being an electrical current present, or said electrical current being absent. The "on" state is assigned the value "1", while the "off" state is assigned the value "0".

The term "binary" implies "two". Thus, the binary number system is a system of numbers based on two possible digits – 0 and 1. This is where the strings of binary digits come in. Each binary digit, or "bit", is a single 0 or 1, which directly corresponds to a single "switch" in a circuit. Add enough of these "switches" together, and you can represent more numbers. So instead of 1 digit, you end up with 8 to make a byte. (A byte, the basic unit of storage, is simply defined as 8 bits; the well-known kilobytes, megabytes, and gigabytes are derived from the byte, and each is 1,024 times as big as the other. There is a 1024-fold difference as opposed to a 1000-fold difference because 1024 is a power of 2 but 1000 is not.)...

...is made of numbers, words and letters. While it is
fine for us to use ten digits for our computations, computers do not have this luxury. Every computer processor is made of millions of tiny switches that can be turned off or on. Since these switches only have two states, it makes sense for a computer to perform its computations with a number system that only has two digits: the binarynumber system. These digits (0 and 1) are called bits and correspond to the off/on positions of the switches in the computer processor. With only these two digits, a computer can perform all the arithmetic that we can with ten digits.
A number system defines how a number can be represented using distinct symbol. A number can be represented differently in different systems. For example, the two numbers (2A)16 and (52)8 both refer to the same quantity, (42)10, but their representation are different. As human being, we use the decimal number system (base-10 number system) for counting; while the computerusesbinarynumber
2
system (base-2 number system) thus there are two numbers: 0 and 1. A single computer switch can represent both...

...Binarynumbers consist of only two digits, 0 and 1. This seems very inefficient and simple for us humans who are used to working in base 10, but for a computer base 2, or binary, is the perfect numbering system. This is because all calculations in a computer are based on millions of transistors that are either in an on position, or an off position. So there we have it, 0 for off, and 1 for on. But that on it’s own isn’t very interesting or useful. Having a switch that is either off or on tells us nothing and doesn’t allow us to do any maths at all, which after all is what we want computers for.
In order to do anything useful we have to group our switches (called bits) into something bigger. For example, eight bits becomes a byte, and by alternating the position of the bits, either 1 or 0, we end up with 256 combinations. All of a sudden we have something useful we can work with. As it happens, we can now use any number up to 255 (we lose one because 0 is counted as a number) for our mathematics, and if we use two bytes, the number of combinations for our sixteen bits becomes 65,536. Quite staggering considering we’re only talking about sixteen transistors.
Now, in modern computers, a CPU is likely to have anything up to a billion transistors. That’s 1000 million switches all working together at nearly the...

...A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem.
Ads by Plus-HD-V1.5c×Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved.
In World War II, mechanical analog computers were used for specialized military applications. During this time the first electronic digital computers were developed. Originally they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).[1]
Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space.[2] Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and mobile computers can be powered by small batteries. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and...

...BINARYNUMBER SYSTEM
Definition
The binarynumber system is relatively simple because it only uses two digits, 0 and 1. Therefore, it has a numerical base of 2. In order to count further than 1, we simply start back at 0 and add to the number on the left.
Decimal
Binary
0
0000
1
0001
2
0010
3
0011
4
0100
5
0101
6
0110
7
0111
8
1000
9
1001
The powers of 2 are used to convert binarynumbers into decimal numbers. This will be explained in further sections.
Application
The binarynumber system is also called the language of computers. They are very important in the field of electrical engineering and computer sciences. The binary digits are used to operate transistors which can be found in most electrical devices. The 0 digit means that there is no current flowing, while the 1 digit means that there is a flow of current. Using this, it can turn on and off various signals in order to control the computer or electrical device.
Operations
Addition
Binary addition is very much like decimal addition. It has only two digits, making it much easier to work with. The possible combinations and answers are listed on the table.
Addend 1
Addend 2
Sum
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1 with a carry of 1...

...HISTORY AND APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTERS
||
INTRODUCTION
When more than one thing is needed to work together before an action can take place, we say we have a system. The computer needs several things before it can be used to solve problems. Therefore, we say the computer is a system. We may have systems around us even in our body.
How we eat or what happens to the food we eat is a system. This is called the Digestive System. We need mouth, tongue, teeth and stomach for us to make good use of the food we eat. In explanation of this; food is put in the mouth as INPUT; the food is digested and changed into useful things that our body needs; this is called PROCESSING, the undigested food from the body in the form of waste passed out; this is called OUTPUT.
In the same way, relating this to computer, data is given to computer as INPUT, computer acts on the input by performing some operations on them; this called PROCESSING, the computer produces something after processing; this is called OUTPUT.
These three stages of input, process and output are called COMPUTING and it gives the reason for referring to the computation as an I-P-O system. (Gbadeyan Et.al 2007)
6.1|WHAT IS A COMPUTER?|
A computer is an electronic device which accepts and processes data by following a set of instructions (PROGRAM) to produce a...

...then cast consensus clustering as an optimization problem of the PRI value between a target partition and a set of given partitions, experimenting with a simple and very efficient stochastic optimization algorithm. Remarkable performance gains over input partitions as well as over existing related methods are demonstrated through a range of applications, including a new use of consensus clustering to improve subtopic retrieval.
Definition[edit]
Given a set of elements and two partitions of to compare, , a partition of S intor subsets, and , a partition of S into s subsets, define the following:
* , the number of pairs of elements in that are in the same set in and in the same set in
* , the number of pairs of elements in that are in different sets in and in different sets in
* , the number of pairs of elements in that are in the same set in and in different sets in
* , the number of pairs of elements in that are in different sets in and in the same set in
The Rand index, , is:[1][2]
Intuitively, can be considered as the number of agreements between and and as the number of disagreementsbetween and .
-------------------------------------------------
Definition[edit]
Suppose we have two clusterings (a division of a set into several subsets) and where , , . Then the variation of information between two clusterings is:...

...Use of Computers in Banks
Computers are used in banks for a variety of reasons. They help bank personnel operate more efficiently and effectively. Computers are used to track certain transactions and they help process other customer information as well. Without computers, it would be very hard for a bank to offer good customer service day in and day out. Computers help a bank save time and money, and can be used as an aid to generate profits.
Customer Information
Banks usecomputers to track customer information such as name, address, and phone number, date of birth, Social Security number and place of employment. This information is used to stay in touch with customers and notify them of any changes in bank policy. A customer address is needed to send out statements on a monthly basis. A customer's account number is also stored in the computer, which gives bank employees the ability to access customer information efficiently.
Products
The number of products and services a customer has is also stored in computers. Bank personnel will periodically call customers at home to offer them a product or service, such as a home equity line of credit. It helps to know which products a customer already has before any new products are offered. Without the use of...

...10/18/13
What are the uses of computers in defence
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Uses in defense
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Answer:
There are many usescomputers in defence such as:
1) Controlling UAV or unmanned air-crafts an example is Predator. If you have cable I would recommend
watching the shows " Future Weapons" and " Modern Marvles". The show future weapons gives an
entire hour to the predator.
2) They are also used on Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) that uses GPS and Computers to help
the missile get to the target.
3) Computers are used to track incoming missiles and help slew weapons systems onto the incoming
target to destroy them....

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