“Why Byzantine Economy Remained One of the Most Powerful in Europe Through Early Middle Ages?”

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“Why Byzantine economy remained one of the most powerful in Europe through Early Middle Ages?” The Byzantine cconomy was one of the largest systems throughout Europe and the Mediterannean for many centuries. Both local and international trade were of huge importance for the Byzantine Empire. Lower class, including traders, depended on the upper class. Their need of the foreign goods in order to stay in Local trade was much less popular. Throughout the fourth and sixth centuries, long-distance trade was operating successfully, until the plague appeared, which killed around one-third of the citizens in the Byzantine Empire, and ruined the trade networks. The Byzantine economy had recovered in the tenth century, and Italian merchants contributed to its steady growth in the Mediteranian through the tenth and eleventh centuries (Katz 27-39). To begin, the decades of instability as well as foreign invasions mostly by Germanic tribes, led to an establishment of a new military, political, and administrative framework under Diocletian (284-305), and Constantine I, which also led to a new economic power in Byzantine and Constantinopole. From 395 to 476, the Empire was in a big crisis until the Germans left the territory. Emperor Justinian I provided the growth of the economy, but also the growth period ended with the “Justinian Plague” that broke out in Egypt in 542, and reduced the population in all provinces of the empire. The “Justinian Plague” continued until the 8th century. At the same time, political disadvantage occurred with the warfare against Sasanian Persia in 6th and 7th century, which had a really bad impact on Byzantine economy. In the 7th century, after the death of Prophet Mohammed, the Arabs started to invade eastern parts of the empire, and the Byzantine was still weak from the war with Persia, and until 642, most of the revenue of the empire was gone, but due to their unbreakable economic system, the empire survived again. After the survival of Arabian...
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