Why Are Successful Projects so Important to Hewlett-Packard?

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Chapter 1

Projects in Contemporary Organizations

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Rapid growth in project management  In the past, most projects were external 
– – –

Building a new skyscraper New ad campaign Launching a rocket Developing a new product Opening a new branch Improving the services provided 1-2

Growth lately is in internal projects
– – –



How Project Management Developed

Credit for the development of project management goes to the military – – –

Navy’s Polaris program NASA’s Apollo space program Development of “smart bombs” and “missiles”

 

Project management has found wide acceptance in industry It has many applications outside of construction – –

Managing legal cases Managing new product releases

Forces Fostering Project Management

Main forces in driving the acceptance of project management: – – –

Exponential growth of human knowledge Growing demand for a broad range of complex goods and services Increased worldwide competition

All of these contribute to the need for organizations to do more and to do it faster 1-4



Projects Tend to be Large

Projects tend to be large
– – – –

The Channel Tunnel, or Chunnel Denver International Airport Panama Canal expansion project Three Gorges Dam, China Flying: balloons  planes  jets  rockets  reusable rockets

Projects are getting larger over time

The more we can do, the more we try to do

Project Management Also Getting Smaller
  

More people are seeing the advantages of project management techniques The tools have become cheaper The techniques are becoming more widely taught and written about




Three Project Objectives: The “Triple Constraint” Time  Cost  Scope ** Customer Expectations??? Scope Creep??  Time, cost, and performance are all related to a project 

Three Project Objectives: The “Triple Constraint”

The primary task of the project manager

Is manage these trade-offs, along with the forth trade-off that always exists; trading off between the direction project objectives and goals and a set of ancillary (frequently process) objectives/goals.




Direct Project Goals: Scope, Cost, Time

Figure 1-1


Project Success
   

Project efficiency Impact on the customer Business impact on the organization Opening new opportunities for the future




Project Manager
Project manager is the key individual on a project  Project manager is like a mini-CEO 


Project Management Organizations
The Project Management Institute (PMI), founded in 1969, is the major project management organization  Grew from 7,500 members in 1990 to over 320,000 in 2010  Other organizations 
– –

Association for Project Management International Project Management Association 1-12



Trends in Project Management
Achieving strategic goals  Achieving routine goals

– –

“projectizing” “the boy that cried wolf” “Maturity” of project managers Ancillary goals Phase gates, earned value, critical ratios 1-13

Improving project effectiveness
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Trends in Project Management

Virtual projects
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Increase globalization Use of telecommunications Final scope may not be understood Time deadline unknown or underestimated De-scoping Emergent planning 1-14

Dynamic and quasi-projects
– – – –



Recent Changes in Managing Organizations
   

Consensual management Systems approach Projects are established in order to accomplish set goals Transdisciplinary Across disciplines rather than interdisciplinary (between disciplines)


The Definition of a “Project”
   

A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result Modern project management began with the Manhattan Project In...
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