MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT|
LEVE 400, SEMESTER ONE|
Carefully analyze Likert’s Participative Management style and Blake and Mouton’s Grid, bringing out why the two were key aspects of the Human Relations approach |
LIKERT’S PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT STYLE
Likert outlined four systems of management to describe the relationship, involvement and roles of managers and subordinates in industrial settings. The management systems he outlined include Exploitative Authoritative, Benevolent Authoritative, Consultative System and Participative system. The management systems mentioned is briefly explained as follows; Exploitative authoritative: In this system, managers tend to use threats, fear and punishment to motivate their workers. Managers at the top of the hierarchy make all the decisions and motivation is characterized by threats. Benevolent authoritative: Under this system, motivation is based on the potential for punishment and partially on rewards. The decision making arena is expanded by allowing the lower level employees to be involved in policy making but major policy decisions are left to those at the top, who have some awareness of the problems that occur at the lower levels. Consultative system: This theory is very close to the human relations theory. Motivation of workers is gained through rewards, occasional punishments, and very little involvement in decision making and goals. Participative system: Likert argued that this was the most effective form of management. The system promotes genuine participation in decision making and setting goals through free-flowing horizontal communication and tapping into the creativity and skills of workers. Extensive research conducted as early as the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated that participative management is particularly well suited to science-based organizations whose key staff are noted for their creativity, intrinsic motivation for work...