This research was conducted to compare and contrast the effects of whole grain and refined-grain foods on energy consumption and satiety, or hunger. Evidence through epidemiology maintains that a diet rich in whole grains is related to a decreased risk of chronic diseases. These diseases include, but are not limited to, obesity, type 2-diabetes, coronary heart disease, and a number of cancers. Whole grains contain a substantial amount of antioxidants, which according to the study conducted, may increase the strength of an individual’s immune system, whom regularly consumes whole grain foods.
Participants in this study ranged from ages 11 to 15 years old. There were restrictions as to who could be participants, however, once those restrictions were met, the participants were randomized. This was a 6-week study conducted within just 3 weeks. All participants’ stool sample, height, weight, and birthdays were collected in order to determine a BMI for each individual. During the final week of the study, another stool sample was collected and on the last day of the study, blood and saliva samples were collected. Food packages containing 10 different whole grain-based foods were given to participants and their families. Also, 2 single-serving packs were provided to participants on their school days. The participants were instructed to eat the whole grain foods provided to them as a replacement of any other grains they normally ate as a part of their diet.
All participants completed the 6-week study, but no contrary associations with the study were reported. The intake of whole grain foods was not different between groups and their gender, race, and BMIs. Also, there were a large number of daily questionnaires that were to be completed by participants. Side effects such as stomach ache or pain, flatus, and bloating were reported. Stomach aches and pains were reported on 25% of the days, 35% of the days flatus was reported, while bloating was reported...
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