Screen printing is the method in which ink is applied directly to the surface to be printed (substrate). The image to be printed is photographically transferred to a very fine fabric (the screen) such that the non-printing areas are blocked off and the fabric serves as a stencil. The ink is wiped across the screen to pass through the unblocked pores and reach the substrate. For each color to be printed a separate screen is prepared and the process is repeated.
There are three common types of screen printing presses. The ‘flat-bed’, ‘cylinder’ and the most widely used type, the 'rotary'. Manual flat-bed screen printing is a slow process, done by hand. It is used by designer-makers for complicated fabric designs or for small runs.
In image 1, the mash is stapled to a screen to make a screen. Then later masking tape is stuck to the outside of the screen. Then make a stencil with paper. The stencil is placed under the screen but on top of the paper. Then ink is poured at one end of the screen. A squeegee is used to draw ink across the screen. The screen is carefully lifted. Industrial flat-bed printing automates this process, with the fabric moved through the machine on a conveyor belt and the print repeating rapidly. This is used by designers for mass creation.
Rotary screen printing is a mechanized version of hand screen printing. This process uses hollow screen-mesh cylinders and squeegee blades located inside the cylinders that force the ink onto the wall covering as it travels through a printing press. There is a separate screen for each color. Rotary screen printing allows for a heavy application of ink and a rich look – very similar to hand screen prints but at a lower cost.
Stencilling is a method of imprinting designs or letters on paper, cloth, or other materials through the use of a perforated or cut-out device called a stencil. The technique is widely employed for decorating textiles, wallpaper, ceilings, and furniture and for printing signs,...
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